Category Archives: Posts

Interview about the Relaunch of the Hannah Arendt Papers

By Tobias Schweitzer

Editorial note: Tobias Schweitzer recently finished his Bachelor/undergraduate studies in philosophy and political science at the University of Münster in Germany. His interests include the history of political thought, intellectual history of the 20th century, theories of history and historiography, as well as questions related to the work of Hannah Arendt. He completed an internship at the GHI Washington from April to July 2022.

Barbara Bair is a curator and historian in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress, where she works with eight other historians and subject specialists. Her main field of expertise are literature, culture, and arts. She has worked as collection curator and framework author on the team that produced the digital relaunch of the Hannah Arendt Papers at the LOC in 2021. I’ve had the opportunity to meet her virtually while in Washington and speak with her about the digitized version of the Arendt Papers.

To start with, I would like to begin with some personal aspects. What are your tasks at the LOC and what relation do you have to the Hannah Arendt Papers?

I’m working as a historian in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. In my own area, which is literature, culture, and arts, I curate different collections in physical and digital form and give advice to scholars, journalists or independent researchers who are interested in our collections.

Now let us turn to the papers. Was it Arendt’s own decision to gift her unpublished works to the LOC? If yes, have there been connections between Arendt and the LOC during her lifetime? If not, how did it happen that the papers were subsequently collected at the LOC?

Yes, it was Arendt’s own decision to give her personal papers, including notes, writings, correspondence and other documents to the LOC and yes there were contacts between her and the library during her lifetime. I believe that it was important to her that the papers be preserved, and that accessibility was public and international. In the case of the LOC, access to collections is free to anyone living in the United States or from another country. There are additional Arendt materials archived at places like the New School for Social Research in New York, where she taught, and the Arendt Center at the University of Oldenburg, and her library of books is at Bard College, where her husband was a professor, but the LOC is the principal repository of the bulk of her personal papers. Her wishes in this respect, stated in her lifetime and through her will and an instrument of gift with LOC, continued to be carried forward by her estate after her death.

Hannah Arendt’s US certificate of naturalization, issued on December 10, 1951, Hannah Arendt Papers, https://www.loc.gov/item/mss1105600063/

When and for which reasons did the LOC decide to digitize the Hannah Arendt Papers?

I wasn’t involved when the papers were originally digitized, but it was done between 1998 and 2000 with the support of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. At that time, there was a big push to digitize collections at LOC and to find a quick way of making many special collections electronically accessible.  This meant that select collections that were available in microfilm as a preservation and research format were scanned and upgraded to availability via online access through what was in that era known as the LOC’s American Memory projects.  In the case of the Arendt Papers, as opposed to say, collections stemming from the nineteenth century, there were intellectual rights issues of work by others represented in her papers which needed to be considered.

What led to the relaunch of the papers in the last year?

Over the past several years, the LOC has revamped and upgraded its platform for digitized collections. In the case of the Arendt Papers, this  involved the standardization of the framework design and template to match the updated platform now being used for digital collections, and also increasing the availability of the papers to users anywhere in the world. Before 2021 only some of the papers were widely available, and others could be accessed by researchers through three dedicated workstations located at the LOC, the New School, and the Arendt Center in Oldenburg. After addressing remaining right issues, and with the agreement of the institutions involved and the Arendt Trust, LOC relaunched the digitized papers in a new updated manner in summer 2021 that guarantees broader access from anywhere in the world.

The LOC recently started a campaign to help transcribe LOC documents, among which one can also find the Arendt Papers. Under the title “Woman of the World: Political Thinker Hannah Arendt” you ask virtual volunteers to engage in the transcription process of the Arendt Papers. What feedback did you already get?

Since the launch in May 2022, there are about 400 participants actively registered in the transcribing campaign, but more individuals can also help transcribe without registering to do so. Some are scholars or students, but many of the volunteers are nonacademic people who are willing to engage in her papers. Some of them are just eager to transcribe and are interested in all kinds of collections. Others are particularly interested in Arendt, or understand themselves as lifelong learners. The Goethe Institute of Washington, D.C., the German Historical Association, and the Arendt Center at Bard College have all helped get the word out about the campaign to individuals who might want to help transcribe, especially the German language content. The By the People crowdsourcing project started off just a few years ago with papers of Walt Whitman as its first campaign. Since then it has launched a variety of campaigns, including ones associated with important historical anniversaries, such as woman suffrage, or areas of high research interest, like the Civil War. Each campaign has unique qualities and they differ from one other. Doing Hannah Arendt meant launching a transcription project of a philosopher or political thinker for the first time.  The campaign has gotten high interest because of the questions of thought and public intellectualism we continue to ask in our own times.

Reading List for a course on the “The Federalist”, taught in fall 1967 at the University of Chicago; Hannah Arendt Papers, Subject File, -1975; Courses; University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.; https://www.loc.gov/item/mss1105600995/

How would you explain the ongoing fascination towards the work and person of Hannah Arendt and what fascinates you personally about her?

I think, it’s about the continuing relevancy and ongoing difficulty and complexity of the questions she posed and that we still ask of ourselves as human beings. We are still grappling with and debating so much with versions of these issues today. Think of the problems of refugees, the question of genocide, and all the questions concerning Zionism. I personally have a very deep appreciation of her and her work, and I am again and again astonished by the variety of what is available in these papers as well as how profound the content really is. Whether or not you agree with Arendt, the questions she asks, and the debates she inspires, continue to be very important today. As well as the things she asks us to remember. The papers are also a way to discover her private side and more of her character and personality, and through her many drafts and her letters, the creative process of her mind, as well as her rich associations with other people.

You can register as a transcriber of the Hannah Arendt Papers at the Library of Congress By the People Campaign: https://crowd.loc.gov/campaigns/arendt/

Reflections on Researching Digitized Personal Files of Sinti and Roma Created by Berlin’s Criminal Police in Nazi Germany

By Lara Raabe

Editorial note: Lara Raabe is a graduate history student at the Humboldt University Berlin. She is currently writing her master’s thesis on the role of Sinti and Roma in the Einsatzgruppen Trial in Nuremberg, 1947-1948. She works in the field of Holocaust and Memory Studies as well as the History of Sinti and Roma in Europe. She completed her internship at the GHI in Washington, DC, in the spring and summer of 2022.

The Sinti and Roma minority in Europe suffered a long history of persecution and discrimination. In Nazi Germany, the violence against Sinti and Roma escalated, and hundreds of thousands of Sinti and Roma men, women, and children became victims of racist discrimination, persecution, and genocide.

In July of 1936, the Berlin police forces launched a persecution and arrest campaign against the Sinti and Roma minority living in Berlin. Many families were deported to the Marzahn internment camp, which had recently been established.[1] Based on a decree issued by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office) on December 16, 1942, Sinti and Roma were deported in the spring of 1943 to the so-called “Zigeunerlager” (a pejorative term translated as “Gypsy Camp”) at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and death camp.[2]

Beginning in 1939, employees of the so-called “Dienststelle für Zigeunerfragen” (Office for Gypsy Affairs) created personal files for individuals and families who were registered by the Berlin criminal police as so-called “Zigeuner.”[3] The office was located at the Criminal Police Headquarters and played an important role in the persecution of the minority on a local level.[4] The files are key sources for researching National Socialist persecution of Sinti and Roma in Berlin and the Brandenburg region. The preservation of the files is due to a single archives employee who was able to save a small part of the collection from being destroyed.[5] They are now kept at the Landesarchiv Berlin (Central State Archives Berlin). The files have been digitized and can be accessed via the Arolsen Archives, the former International Tracing Service (ITS), which is one of the most important archives for victims of Nazi persecution today. One can search for individual files by name.[6]

The digital sources are always of great significance for historians researching the history of Sinti and Roma persecution, but they are especially so in light of the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, it is particularly important and worthwhile to review the personal files from the perspective of source criticism.

The source material consists of 179 uniform personal files, most of which include so-called “Rassegutachten”—reports assessing the “race” based on racist categories (see below)[7]—birth certificates, employment certificates, and often fingerprints, images, and correspondences. In addition, they contain notes that provide information on life circumstances or deportation dates. The individual files differ in size. At least eight of them were initially created as criminal files by the so-called “Kriminalinspektion Vorbeugung” (Criminal Investigation Prevention).[8] These documents contain personal cards from prisons, investigations, penal orders, indictments, and judgments, as well as from interrogations of individuals, which can provide detailed insights into labor conditions, living circumstances, and acts of self-assertion or resistance.

Nevertheless, we must consider that the information in these files reflects the racist Nazi ideology and terminology and can’t be taken at face value. First and foremost, the term “Zigeuner” is an attribution with which Sinti and Roma people did not identify. Instead, it is a racist category that the perpetrators imposed on them. Furthermore, the content of these sources has been transmitted in a filtered form. This is evident in the written summary of an interrogation of the nineteen-year-old Korseda M., who jumped off the train during her deportation to the concentration camp Ravensbrück, fled, and was arrested again a few weeks later. In her criminal file, her interrogation was summarized. Based on the language and the deletions as well as the handwritten additions to the original excerpt of the transcript, it is apparent that her statement was altered.[9] Evidently, an official already preselected the information that seemed relevant to him – as well as the information that did not. This decision too was based on racist logic. However, despite the changes of the original statement, the transcript of the interrogation reveals her resistance.

Konrad W.’s escape is yet another example of Sinti and Roma resistance documented in the personal files. The twenty-year-old Konrad was imprisoned for allegedly breaching his employment contract. He broke out of a court prison, and the district court councilor, who wrote the letter, even urged caution in case of arrest, warning that Konrad and fellow fugitives could resist with violence.[10] Whether Konrad was indeed violent or if the assertion was only a projection of the district court councilor remains unclear. Nevertheless, the case shows that Konrad resisted the discriminatory labor conditions imposed on him. Furthermore, the file concluded with a report that Konrad W. was still on the run. Konrad’s further fate cannot be determined.

Clearly, there are some limitations to the validity of the personal files. The collection is fragmentary, and the files reflect the perspectives of bureaucratic perpetrators. Therefore, a source-critical approach to the files is essential. It is crucial for researchers to consciously retain a critical distance from the language of the perpetrators while making the origins and context of the information gathered by the perpetrators transparent. As long as one maintains such a source-critical perspective, the files can certainly provide valuable clues to resistant behavior and human agency.

Furthermore, personal testimonies from victims are a necessary corrective when working with perpetrator sources like the personal files.[11] The personal testimonies can illuminate gray areas and ultimately transcend the perpetrators’ perspective.

Finally, the source value of the files depends on the research question. They are doubtless of great value for researching the lives of persecuted Sinti and Roma. If one approaches them with sensitivity, the persecuted persons also become visible as subjects who represented their own interests and resisted in a variety of ways.  

In this light, the history of the persecution of Sinti and Roma, reflected in these files, also comes across as a history of self-assertion.

References

[1] Cf. Pientka, Patricia: Das Zwangslager für Sinti und Roma in Berlin-Marzahn. Alltag, Verfolgung und Deportation. Berlin 2013. 39f.

[2]  Cf. Gilsenbach, Reimar: Marzahn – Hitlers erstes Lager für Fremdrassige. Ein vergessenes Kapitel der Naziverbrechen, in: Pogrom – Zeitschrift für bedrohte Völker 17 (1986) 122, 15-17. 17.

[3] Cf. Pientka: Zwangslager. 19f.

[4] Cf. Fings, Karola: Gutachten zum Schnellbrief des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes – Tgb. Nr. RKPA. 149/1939 -g- vom 17.10.1939 betr. „Zigeunererfassung“ („Festsetzungserlass“). Köln 2018. 3f.

[5] Cf. Pientka: Zwangslager. 19f.

[6] https://arolsen-archives.org/en/

[7] This involved the racist assignment of individuals into the categories of “Zigeuner” (Gypsy), “non-Gypsy,” “Gypsy-mixed,” and many degrees in between.

[8] The “vorbeugende Verbrechensbekämpfung” (preventive crime control) allowed the Nazis to surveil and arrest alleged potential criminals and unwanted persons. The measures it included affected, for example, Sinti and Roma, homeless people, homosexuals, and sex workers.

[9] Cf. Interrogation Korseda M., 1939, 1.2.2 / 12102693 / ITS Digital Archive, Arolsen Archives. See Korseda’s file: https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/de/search/person/12102693?s=korseda%20merz&t=6480&p=1

[10] Cf. Letter district court councilor Atlandsberg to “Zigeunerdienststelle“, 1942, 1.2.2 / 12102907/ ITS Digital Archive, Arolsen Archives. See Konrad’s file: https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/de/search/person/12102907?s=Konrad%20winter&t=6480&p=1

[11] A collection of digitized self-testimonies can be found in the curated archive section “Voices of the Victims” of RomArchive, the digital archive of the Roma. https://www.romarchive.eu/en/voices-of-the-victims/

“Where AI meets historical documents”: Automatically transcribing historical prints with OCR and HTR

By Janna Katharina Müller

In my last blog post, I wrote about the source corpus for my master’s thesis – the journal “Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde” (MC) – and my plan to subject it to digital analysis. The main thing I needed for my analysis was a digital text. Thanks to the Thuringian University and State Library in Jena, the scanned originals of the MC are available online, but only as non-machine-readable PDF files. The first step towards usable data was thus to generate a text from image files.

However, it was essential to consider the type of writing used in the MC: As can be seen from the example page below, the MC was printed in a font that uses, among other things, the long s (“ſ”), an archaic form of the lower-case letter s. Unlike most German publications of the early 19th century, however, this is not a fractional font such as Fraktur, but rather an Antiqua font with serifs, which contains rounded arcs and was used primarily for Latin, Italian, and French texts, but was rather uncommon in German prints.

Figure 1: Example page from the MC (Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde, Juni-Heft (1801): 556)

OCR with Tesseract

One of the best-known ways to recognize text is Optical Character Recognition (OCR), the electronic or mechanical conversion of images into machine-coded text based on the recognition of individual characters. One software that uses OCR is Tesseract. This is available free of charge and an open-source program. Tesseract needs language add-ons for text recognition, in my case for German.  Here, I already encountered the first difficulties: The module for German text recognition “deu” is mainly intended for modern printing. However, as described above, my source is an older print. Therefore, I attempted text recognition with the additional module “deu” as well as “deu_frak” (for German Fraktur fonts).

If you are familiar with the use of the command line and have installed Tesseract, a simple short command is sufficient for transcription:

tesseract example_page.tif output_page.txt -l deu

Tesseract now provides the following text of my sample page using the German add-on:

556 Monatl. Correfp. 1801. $VNIVS.

die Glaskugel hätte machen können. Es [cheintauch,
dafs man leichter zwey Stahlcylinder einander voll-
kommen gleich wird machen köunen, als man zwey
Glaskugeln gleich grofs und gleich dick blafen kann:
fo dafs man allo bey Stahlcylindern leichter zwey voll-
kommen vergleichbare Thermometer wird erhalten
können,

 XLIV.

Über die

beym April-Hefte’ befindliche

Perfifche Karte.

 (Befchlufs zu S. sız des III B.)

 Mau hat mir den Vorwurf machen’ wollen, dals
ich die Anpreifungen und Empfehlungen Yadley’fcher
Spiegel-Sextanten übertreibe und bis zum Ekel wie-
derhole. Aber die vielfältigen Beyfpiele, welche mir
mehr, als jedem andern bekannt werden, beweilen
mir, dals ich lie bey weiten noch nicht genug em-
pfohlen habe; ich werde allo noch lange damit fort-
fahren. Dies kann doch ‚wol niemanden Verdrufs
oder Schaden bringen ? Ich habe erfahren, dafs [eit-
dem diefes nicht genug zu lobende Inftrument, durch
gegenwärtige Zeitfchrift, auch unter Laien, oder tın-
ter f[olchen Gelehrten bekannter geworden ift, deren
Beruf es nicht mit fich (bringt , aftronomifche Werke
zu lefen, der Gebrauch diefes nützlichen Werkzen-
ges

As you can see, this text is already quite readable, although full of errors. The long s “ſ” is not recognized as such, but transcribed as “f”, “l” or even “[“. There were also problems with the recognition of the word “JUNIUS” in italic capital letters, and the translation of “ſs” as “ß”.

Therefore, here is another try with the Fraktur module:

556 Umsatz«- coyrejp MU. FPNIZS

 die Glaskugel hätte machen können. Es scheint auch,
dass man leichter zwey stahlcylinder einander voll-
kommen gleich wird machen können . als man zwey
Glaskugeln gleich gross und gleich dick blasen kann-
so dass man also bey stahlcylindern leichter zwey voll-
kommen vergleichbare Thermometer wird erhalten
können. 

XLIV.

Über die

bcym April—Hefte’besindliche

Perlische Karte.

(Beschluss zu s. 513 des lll B.) 

Man hat mir den Vorwurf machen· wollen« das-
ich die Anpreisungen und Empfehlung-en flmlzey’scher
spiegel-sextanten übertreibe und bis zum Ekel wie-
derhole. Aber die vielfältigen Beyspiele . welche mir
mehr, als jedem andern bekannt werden, beweisen
mir, dass ich sie bey weiten noch nicht genug em-
Psohlen habe; ich werde also noch lange damit fort-
fahren. Dies kann doch wol niemanden Verdruss
oder schaden bringen ? lch habe erfahren, dass seit-
dem dieses nicht genug zu lobende Instrument , durch
gegenwärtige Zeitschrift, auch unter Laien, oder lin-
ter solchen Gelehrten bekannter geworden ist, deren
Beruf es nicht mit lich bringt . astronomische Werke
tu lesen, der Gebrauch dieses nützlichen Werkzeu—
ges

Here, the “ſ” was partially recognized, but all sorts of incomprehensible things were produced. This is explained by the fact that the “deu_frak” module contains the typical long s for fractional font, but the MC was printed in a rounder, non-fractional font, similar to Antiqua scripts. Since these are unusual for the German speaking area in the early 19th century, however, I could not find a German Antiqua module and thus a suitable module for my project – so I had to look for other ways. These difficulties in applying OCR to historical prints are not particularly uncommon, and I quickly came across another option:

HTR with Transkribus

Another method that was originally closely linked to the development of OCR is Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR). It combines pattern recognition methods with artificial intelligence to produce machine-readable text.  Originally developed for handwritten material, HTR can be applied just as well to printed text that, as in my case, is too complex for OCR processing.

One platform developed by the “READ” project (Recognition and Enrichment of Archival Documents) of the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program that works with HTR is Transkribus [https://readcoop.eu/transkribus/?sc=Transkribus].  Here, Deep Neural Network Models are applied to manuscript material to decipher (historical) manuscripts or printed texts using digital images and transcriptions, and automatically generate transcripts of similar material.  Based on the input documents, users train an HTR model, which is thus language and script independent.  Baselines and corresponding text form the input of the learning algorithms of the neural network (see figure 2).

For full transparency, I should address the accessibility of the program: The software itself is free, and the use of the HTR was free for a long time. In October 2020, however, Transkribus switched to a partial payment model, so that users could still download the software for free and train an HTR model but had to pay for the application of this to subsequent materials with so-called “credits”, which have to be purchased. For the realization of my project, I received a scholarship of 3000 credits from the READ project, for which I am very grateful.

To feed Transkribus with baseline data (called ground truth), I uploaded the first issue of MC (January 1800). To mark the baselines, Transkribus offers an automatic layout analysis, where the images are segmented into single lines. These then have to be transcribed manually (see also Figure 2). To train an HTR model, about 15,000 words (approx. 75 pages) are required as a ground truth data set; for printed texts, 5000 words or 25 pages are sufficient.  With a few clicks and a little time, HTR models can be trained that achieve a character error rate (CER, average percentage of incorrectly transcribed characters) of less than 5% (handwritten texts), respectively 1–2% for printed texts.

Figure 2: View of a page in Transkribus

As a ground truth data set, I completely transcribed the first issue of MC and used it to train a first HTR model. In a second step, I let this model transcribe the February 1800 issue, corrected it manually and fed this data into my model as well. Thus, I ended up with my model “MC 1800 German” with a CER of 1.29% (see Figure 3). The transcriptions can then be exported as xml, pdf or txt files.

Figure 3: My HTR model “MC 1800 German”

Now, we can compare the transcriptions with my model with those of Tesseract and the example above:

Monatl. Corresp. 1800. JUNIUS.
556

die Glaskugel hätte machen können. Es scheint auch,
daß man leichter zwey Stahlcylinder einander voll¬
kommen gleich wird machen können, als man zwey
Glaskugeln gleich groß und gleich dick blasen kann:
so daß man also bey Stahlcylinder leichter zwey voll¬
kommen vergleichbare Thermometer wird erhalten
können.

XIIV.

Über die

beym April-Hefte’ befindliche

Persische Karte.

(Beschluß zu S. 513 des III B.)

Man hat mir den Vorwurf machenwollen, daß
ich die Anpreisungen und Empfehlungen Hadley’scher
Spiegel-Sextanten übertreibe und bis zum Ekel wie¬
derhole. Aber die vielfältigen Beyspiele, welche mir
mehr, als jedem andern bekannt werden, beweisen
mir, daß ich sie bey weiten noch nicht genug em¬
pfohlen habe; ich werde also noch lange damit fort¬
fahren. Dies kann doch wol niemanden Verdruß
oder Schaden bringen? Ich habe erfahren, daß seit¬
dem dieses nicht genug zu lobende Instrument, durch
gegenwärtige Zeitschrift, auch unter Laien, oder hn.
ter solchen Gelehrten bekannter geworden ist, deren
Beruf es nicht mit sich bringt, astronomische Werke
zu lesen, der Gebrauch dieses nützlichen Werkzeu¬
ges

This transcription is now almost flawless. However, minor corrections were necessary, especially for numbers and symbols. In particular, mathematical formulas and elaborate calculations as well as tables with observational data, which occur repeatedly in the MC, were particularly difficult to transcribe: Rare symbols were not recognized or were confused, fractions longer than two lines were segmented and thus deprived of their reference. The quality of the digitized material itself also led to errors: print-through of the backs, pale or blurred writing or stains affected the correct transcription. Nevertheless, and despite the relatively large amount of time that had to be invested in collecting ground truth data, Transkribus ultimately produced a text that was for the most part very close to the original text and machine-readable, and thus could form the basis for my further processing with digital tools.

 

Sources

Akhlaghi, Andrew. “OCR and Machine Translation.” Programming Historian 10 (2021). https://doi.org/10.46430/phen0091.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Graves, Alex, and Jürgen Schmidhuber. “Offline Handwriting Recognition with Multidimensional Recurrent Neural Networks.” In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Vol. 21, 2009. https://papers.nips.cc/paper/2008/hash/66368270ffd51418ec58bd793f2d9b1b-Abstract.html.

Mazal, Otto. Paläographie und Paläotypie. Zur Geschichte der Schrift im Zeitalter der Inkunabeln. Vol. 8. Bibliothek des Buchwesens. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann Verlag, 1984.

Muehlberger, Guenter, Louise Seaward, Melissa Terras, Sofia Ares Oliveira, Vincente Bosch, and Maximilian Bryan. “Transforming Scholarship in the Archives Through Handwritten Text Recognition.” Journal of Documentation 75, no. 5 (2019): 954–76.

Smith, Ray. “An Overview of the Tesseract OCR Engine.” Ninth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR 2007), 2007, 629–33.

Tappert, Charles C., Ching Yee Suen, and Toru Wakahara. “The State of the Art in Online Handwriting Recognition.” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12 (1990): 787–808.

Jewish Transit to China: “Die Gelbe Post”: A German Newspaper in Shanghai, 1939 – 1940

By Lea Katharina Neikes

The German Historical Institute (GHI) Washington DC, in collaboration with external partners, has organized an ongoing conference and workshop series about Jewish refugees in global transit between the 1930s and 1960s. The workshop was held 2018 in Kolkata, 2019 at the GHI Pacific Regional Office in Berkeley, and 2020 and 2021 as an online workshop due to the pandemic. As former interns, Paul Diekmann and I were invited to participate as guests at the Oct. 25-26 online workshop. Especially the discussion about the destination Shanghai, a rich and multifaceted topic, turned out to be fascinating.

After the November pogrom in 1938, while almost all other countries had closed their borders to German Jews, only Shanghai remained as one of the last places of refuge from the German Reich. Until 1941, it was still possible to enter the French and international parts of the city without a visa. Around 18,000 to 20,000 German-speaking refugees came to Shanghai. First by sea via Italian ports, later via the Soviet Union with the Trans-Siberian Railway or via intermediate stops in Africa and Asia. In addition, around 1,500 Jewish refugees from Japan were deported to Shanghai in 1941. The community grew to about 20,000 members during this time.

Cartoon, Die abgewiesenen Flüchtlinge, in: Die Gelbe Post, vol. 1, no. 2 (May 16, 1939), 28, original: Ken Magazine Chicago, cartoonist and copyrights unknown. Please contact href if you have any information about the rights holder.

The refugees had to adjust to the poor living conditions on site. Their experience offers a perspective on the war that is markedly different from the experiences of emigres to other countries. The history of Jewish refugees in Shanghai highlights that World War II was a complex combination of events, reflecting a variety of entanglements and disentanglements. After the beginning of WWII in the Pacific in December 1941, Shanghai came under full control of an Axis power: Japan. While Japan itself committed egregious war crimes, it shared neither the priorities nor the methods of the of the Germans who committed and supported the genocide.

The situation for the refugees worsened when the Japanese military authorities set up a ghetto for Jewish refugees in the Hongkou district in February 1943. Despite the adverse conditions, the emigrants developed a diverse cultural and social life with theater and music programs, newspapers, and the establishment of synagogues and schools. Still, the majority of Jews knew only German. There were no German-language newspapers and magazines in Shanghai at that time. Therefore, it was not easy to get information about what was going on in the world.

Josef Storfer, a disciple of Sigmund Freud, went into exile in Shanghai in 1938. In July 1938, he founded the magazine die  Gelbe Post (the Yellow Post), which appeared twice a month and dealt primarily with the daily struggle for survival of Jewish émigrés in Shanghai. In November 1938, the  Gelbe Post was transformed into a newspaper. It appeared daily until it was sold in September 1940. The newspaper quickly established international recognition.

Gelbe Post, vol. 7, no. 78 (May 5, 1940), LBI periodical collection online, https://archive.org/details/gelbepost

This did not go unnoticed in Nazi Germany.  Just two months after it was published, a well-informed, extensive article about Storfer and his magazine appeared in the vulgar anti-Semitic hate newspaper “Der Stürmer”. The name of the German author, who apparently had to live in Shanghai, is deliberately not mentioned: “From our collaborator in Shanghai,” is all it says. For them, Storfer who even in exile tried not to give up his Viennese cultural heritage, was also subject to racist persecution and demonization in Shanghai. The Stürmer wrote: “The Jew A. J. Storfer has now settled in Shanghai. He is working to inject his Jewish poison into wide circles of the Chinese people. Through his poison the Chinese people, who are already very decomposed by communism, shall perish completely.”[1] This example shows that the Nazi persecution did not end during the transit of the refugees. It had to be expected that Nazi supporters would remain in their environment.

The Jews in Shanghai, who had successfully escaped from the Nazi regime, continued to care and worry about the war in Europe, especially about the policies of Nazi Germany. Even though Shanghai was and felt far away from Europe, the emigrees were very worried that the war would extend further and come closer to Shanghai. Die Gelbe Post reported in almost every issue on political events, assessments of the war’s development and possible new immigration opportunities.

In Storfer’s obituary, a friend wrote: ” (…) He was always preoccupied with getting to the bottom of things (…) as deeply as possible.”[2] And in fact, there were entire articles in his newspaper devoted to the beauty and distinctiveness of Chinese and Japanese culture and language. Why were Jewish journalists and intellectuals in the changed political situation in Shanghai still focusing their attention “on the content and value of the superior Chinese culture”?

A few years after his arrival in Shanghai, the Jewish jurist and journalist Dr. Victor Sternberg stated in this regard:  “Above all, we have come to know the people of China, in that section which lives in Shanghai, to some extent, during the years of our stay here, and we have made a great discovery: the Chinese are people just like us. […]”[3] This discovery was partly owed to those exile journalists, like Storfer, who helped the Jewish emigrants in Shanghai to overcome the linguistic difficulties, especially the problems of understanding the Chinese mentality and Chinese culture.

The Jewish refugees living in Shanghai were considerate of their fellow residents and of their surroundings. For example, they reported on initial mistakes made by newcomers or advised on the proper, polite, way to treat rickshaw drivers. The report “Gangsterversicherung gegen Gangster in Hongkew”, published on the 5th of March 1940, speaks of thugs on Huoshan Street, who often came into the stores and collected the protection fees. Those who paid the protection fees had a note with “under protection” taped to the door of the store. Reports like this informed the Jewish businessmen about the various gangs in Shanghai and urged them to be careful. The Jewish refugees cared very much for their countrymen and wished that more refugees would be taken in by Shanghai.

Shanghai’s unique perspective and newspapers like the Yellow Post are a good reflection of the experiences and observations of the Jewish refugees stranded there. However, in order to evaluate these experiences in depth, one must evaluate biographical aspects to reconstruct time and feelings. There are always certain types of religious and cultural knowledge that have been passed down through generations, which may not be documented by documents and other sources While transit is frequently associated with trauma, it can also be associated with other aspects of the experience, such as humor, love or sexuality. Die Gelbe Post and Josef Storfer’s work demonstrate just that. A wide range of Exilpresse publications like the Gelbe Post and other journals (not only from Shanghai) can be accessed via the online catalog of the German national library, which also includes various exhibitions, publications and events. https://www.dnb.de/DE/Sammlungen/DEA/Exilpresse/exilpresse_node.html;jsessionid=58CB1B342758D91C72DBA2346543D980.internet532

See also:  Gelbe Post: ostasiatische Halbmonatsschrift. (Shanghai, China: 1939-1940), Leo Baeck Institute Periodical Collection, NYC, online at the Internet Archive: https://archive.org/details/gelbepost (last accessed January 17, 2022).

[1] Kaufhold,Roland: Ein Wiener in Asien. https://www.juedische-allgemeine.de/kultur/ein-wiener-in-asien/ (Stand: 12.12.2021).

[2] Goddemeier, Christof: Adolf Josef Storfer: „Geist von der Eindringlichkeit eines Drillbohrers“. https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/210735/Adolf-Josef-Storfer-Geist-von-der-Eindringlichkeit-eines-Drillbohrers (Stand: 12.12.2021).

[3] Lukoschik, Rita Unfer: Deutsch-chinesische Literaturbeziehungen. In: Hans-Gert Roloff (Hg.): Jahrbuch für Internationale Germanistik. Jahrgang XLVII – Heft 1, 2015.

References

  • Eber, Irene. Wartime Shanghai and the Jewish Refugees from Central Europe: Survival, Co-existence, and Identity in a Multi-ethnic City. 2012.
  • Kaufhold, Roland. Ein Wiener in Asien. Jüdische Allgemeine, Aug. 7, 2017 https://www.juedische-allgemeine.de/kultur/ein-wiener-in-asien/ (Accessed 12.12.2021).
  • Lämmert, Eberhard, Mencke, Eva, Maas, Lieselotte. Handbuch der deutschen Exilpresse 1933-1945. Bd. 3 1976.
  • Lukoschik, Rita Unfer. Deutsch-chinesische Literaturbeziehungen. In: Hans-Gert Roloff (Hg.): Jahrbuch für Internationale Germanistik. Jahrgang XLVII – Heft 1, 2015.
  • Lukoschik, Rita Unfer. Deutsch-chinesische Literaturbeziehungen. In: Hans-Gert Roloff (Hg.): Jahrbuch für Internationale Germanistik. Jahrgang XLVII – Heft 1, 2015.
  • Mars, Alvin. A Note on the Jewish Refugees in Shanghai. In: Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 31, Nr. 4, 1969.
  • Rosdy, Paul. Adolf Josef Storfer, Shanghai und die Gelbe Post. Dokumentation von Paul Rosdy zum Reprint der Gelben Post. 1999.
  • Rosdy, Paul. Adolf Josef Storfer, Shanghai und die Gelbe Post. Dokumentation von Paul Rosdy zum Reprint der Gelben Post. 1999.
  • Stiftung Jüdisches Museum Berlin (Hg.). Heimat und Exil: Emigration der deutschen Juden nach 1933. 2006.
  • Yutong, Wang/Yongting, Pan. Was stand in der Gelben Post? SISU, Sept. 25, 2016, http://de.shisu.edu.cn/resources/features/content5127 (Accessed 12.2021).

A Reflection on the Connection between Facebook and Anti-Refugee Violence in Germany

#Onlinehatecrime #Socialmedia #Migrants #refugees #Germany #attacksonmigrants

By Anosh Samuel

Editorial note: The author completed a virtual internship at the German Historical Institute in Washington, DC, in the fall/winter of 2021/22. Anosh Samuel hails from Islamabad, Pakistan and is currently studying for a Master in Roads to Democracies at the University of Siegen in Germany. He plans to work on a final Master’s Project about “Migration, integration and social media (case study of Pakistani students in Germany).” He’s keenly interested in international politics, policy and decision making, social media and migration, diplomacy and communication, research and analysis, and foreign policy. In his free time, he plays guitar, loves to read and write articles, watches historical documentaries, watches NEWS, and reads newspapers. He’s reachable at anosh_samuel [ at ] yahoo.com. 

This blog, “A Reflection on the Connection between Facebook and Anti-Refugee Violence in Germany,” analyzes the study “Facebook and propagating hate against migrants and refugees in Germany” by Karsten Müller and Carlo Schwarz (2020).” What are the contributing patterns and factors on Facebook towards hate against refugees and migrants in Germany? Are users of Facebook and other social media politically or ideologically influenced? Based on a report published by Hamburg-based Statista Research Department (2021), 42.8 million users actively use Facebook in Germany. Social media has become a wide source of information and news. The shared information spreads like wildfire. A staggering number of 87% of internet users in Germany use WhatsApp, followed by YouTube 69%, and further 63% of the German population use Facebook, according to the 2020 survey. This means any event could reach 63% of the German population in just a blink of an eye, not considering the shared content on WhatsApp. 28% of Facebook users in Germany are between 25-34 years old.

Müller and Schwarz argue that Facebook, used by a considerable percentage of adults as a news source, could propagate hateful sentiments. Their argument is partially based on research on Facebook’s role in spreading online hate in the US by the Pew Research Center (2018).  Germany saw the influx of one million migrants in 2015 and 2016, and the “Amadeu Antonio Stiftung,” a nonprofit organization, registered an astounding 11,200 between 2015 and 2019 incidents against refugees in Germany (Spreter, 2021). The scholars also explored the Facebook page of the German right-wing party “Alternative for Deutschland (AFD),” which has a larger reach than the sites of any other political party in Germany. AFD was and is still the third-largest party in the 2017 general elections and again sustained the consistent third position in 2021 (Results Germany – The Federal Returning Officer, n.d.).

Unlike other political factions such as German Social Democrats (SPD) and Christian Democratic Union (CDU); AFD enabled its followers to directly post messages on a Facebook wall. Civil rights groups identified content on AFD’s page that focused on refugees and deemed the content as ‘hate speeches’. The authors note that hate crimes mostly take place in areas with higher traffic of Facebook users. Municipalities that experienced Facebook outages and disruptions that they used as control locations experienced fewer hate crimes. Essentially, the authors argue that the more AFD users are engaged with Facebook in German regions, the more prevalent are hate crimes; the less engaged people are with Facebook, the less prevalent hate crimes appeared to be. 

Incidents Targeting Refugees in 2016

Source: DW. (2017) Attacks on refugee homes as high as ever, German Criminal Police Office says | DW | 28.04.2016DW.COM. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/attacks-on-refugee-homes-as-high-as-ever-german-criminal-police-office-says/a-19221702 (Accessed: 10 December 2021).

The groups of perpetrators attacking refugees are driven by collective actions. First, social media is a driving factor for collective outcomes. Second, the collective outcomes of attacks have a spillover effect. The elevation of right-wing sentiments is considerably more common in the towns next to each other based on the spillover effect. The spillover effect could also be supported by the domino effect; a cumulative set of actions produce similar actions.

To the extent that social media has driven the polarization of society, does it also contribute to hate crimes against refugees and migrants? Social media has divided people’s thoughts, and there are two dominating blocs of social media users: one bloc of people who are pro-migrants, and another bloc who is anti-migrants. Polarization of society becomes especially evident when parties like CDU and SPD bring forth migrant-friendly policies.  Recently, for example, SPD, Greens, and FDP proposed overhauling German migrant and citizenship laws, strengthening integration of migrants into society with a promise to allow migrants to hold dual citizenship (DW, 2021). This proposal prompted strong reactions by migrants’ rights on social media. On the one hand, migrants and migration rights groups voiced their enthusiastic support. On the other hand, right-wing groups criticized the proposal.

Percentage of Social Media Hate Speeches Deleted After User Reports

Source: DW. (2017) Bundestag passes law to fine social media companies for not deleting hate speech | DW | 30.06.2017DW.COM. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/bundestag-passes-law-to-fine-social-media-companies-for-not-deleting-hate-speech/a-39486694 (Accessed: 30 November 2021).

To tackle hate crimes, the German parliament (Bundestag) in 2017 passed a law imposing fines on social media companies for not deleting online hate speeches/ content or offending posts (Welle, 2017). Big companies such as Facebook and Twitter could be fined up to 50 million Euros and they are liable to delete the offensive content “which is obvious” within 24 hours. If the content seems ambiguous, companies have 7 days to deal with such content.  Soon after the law was passed, Facebook opened a center operated by service provider Competence Call Center in the Western German city Essen to ramp up the anti-hate subject (DW, 2017).

The prejudices towards foreign culture etc. in Germany are persistent and are reflected by social media.  The authors hold social media platforms responsible for real-life actions and content full of hate. They are shedding light on anti-migrant attacks and online posts. While considering policy debates about regulating and controlling hate speeches on social media, the authors also found that online hateful/offensive content is ignored by policymakers.

Before concluding the discussion, I would like to mention that a study by Matthias Ekman  (Ekman, 2019) also analyzes Facebook posts and comments that could potentially amplify antagonistic and violent behavior towards migrants. The analysis is based on news sources and social media posts on Facebook (Ekman, 2019:613-616). The study emphasizes that citizens are not only politically motivated, but can also be emotionally persuaded. The study  highlights that racist sentiments and emotions are passed on to a large audience using Facebook groups. The online public on social media, whether influenced by politically and belonging to far-right groups, cherish anti-immigrant behavior – Ekman (2019:606-607) posits that public opinion certainly can be manipulated on refugees and immigrants. Far-right political actors utilize nationalistic approaches to harbor citizens’ emotions. The nationalistic approaches ultimately create a sense of insecurity i.e. harboring intolerance due to cultural differences. . Such emotions of insecurity appeal to a like-minded larger audience Migrants and refugees have been marginalized and targeted not only on Facebook but also on other social networking channels.

 

Primary Source:

Müller, K. and Schwarz, C., 2020. Fanning the flames of hate: Social media and hate crime. Journal of the European Economic Association, 19(4), pp.2131-2167.

Secondary Sources:

American Psychological Association. (2017). The Psychology of Hate Crimes.  https://www.apa.org/advocacy/interpersonal-violence/hate-crimes

Dean, B., 2021. How Many People Use Social Media in 2021? Retrieved 28 November 2021, from https://backlinko.com/social-media-users

DW. (2017). Facebook ramps up anti-hate campaign in Germany. DW.  09.08.2017. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from https://www.dw.com/en/facebook-ramps-up-anti-hate-campaign-in-germany/a-40021761

DW.(2021) Germany: Post-Merkel government set to ease migration, citizenship rules. DW. 25.11.2021. Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/germany-post-merkel-government-set-to-ease-migration-citizenship-rules/a-59935900 (Accessed: 12 January 2022).

Ekman, M. (2019). Anti-immigration and racist discourse in social media. European Journal of Communication, 34(6), 606–618. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323119886151

Müller, K. and Schwarz, C., 2020. Fanning the flames of hate: Social media and hate crime. Journal of the European Economic Association, 19(4), pp.2131-2167.

Results Germany—The Federal Returning Officer. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2021, from https://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/2021/ergebnisse/bund-99.html

Results Germany—The Federal Returning Officer. (n.d.). Retrieved 3 December 2021, from https://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/2021/ergebnisse/bund-99.html

Spreter, J. (2021). Rassismus: Zahl der Gewalttaten gegen Geflüchtete ist weiter auf hohem Niveau. Die Zeit. https://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/2021-12/gewalt-gegen-gefluechtete-rassismus-studie-deutschland

Statista. (2021). Social media used in Germany 2020 | Retrieved 5 December 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1059426/social-media-usage-germany/

Welle, D., (2016). German police chief concerned at growing anti-refugee violence. DW. 14.05.2016. Retrieved November 30, 2021, from https://www.dw.com/en/german-police-chief-concerned-at-growing-anti-refugee-violence/a-19257795

Welle, D., (2017). Bundestag passes law to fine social media companies for not deleting hate speech.DW. 30.06.2017. DW.COM. Retrieved November 30, 2021, from https://www.dw.com/en/bundestag-passes-law-to-fine-social-media-companies-for-not-deleting-hate-speech/a-39486694

Research Access to the German Broadcasting Heritage. A Short Introduction to the Archival Landscape of the German Broadcasters ARD and Deutschlandradio

By Götz Lachwitz

Editorial note: Götz Lachwitz has been a research specialist at the German Broadcasting Archive (DRA) at Potsdam-Babelsberg since August 2020. His responsibilities include coordination and advice on ARD-wide and general research inquiries serving academics and other scholars. Previously, he was a research assistant in the DFG project “History of Documentary Film in Germany” and a doctoral student at the University of Hamburg, where he was part of the research training group „Vergegenwärtigungen. Repräsentationen der Shoah in komparatistischer Perspektive“ [Recollections:Representations of the Shoah in Comparative Perspective]

Are you a researcher and are looking for an overview of German radio and television coverage on your research topic? Are you interested in radio and television reports by specific journalists, cinematographers, or other media professionals from the last 100 years? Are you working on a comparative study of broadcasting in East and West Germany during the Cold War and are still looking for relevant sources? Then you need access to the German broadcasting heritage, and to the archives of public broadcasting.

© DRA. Photograph: Waltraud Denger, ARD-Design
Videos relevant to contemporary history are freely accessible under the label “ARD Retro” in the ARD Mediathek on the Internet**

In Germany, there are private broadcasters, mostly financed by advertising, as well as public broadcasters, financed by fees. This system, which is also called the “dual principle,” dates to the early eighties, when an increasing number of private broadcasting companies were established.[1] The prominence of public broadcasting distinguishes the German media landscape from the U.S., where radio and television programs are often produced by commercial providers.  

One of the key features of the public broadcasting system in Germany is its federal structure. Each federal state has its own state broadcasting institution, each with its own competencies. In some cases, two or more federal states jointly operate a broadcasting institution, such as Rundfunk Berlin Brandenburg. A total of nine broadcasters broadcast radio and television programs for their respective regions.[2] In addition, a joint supra-regional television program operates within the framework of ARD, the Association of German Broadcasting Corporations: Das Erste or Das Erste Deutsche Fernsehen.

Part of ARD is the international broadcaster Deutsche Welle, which produces a multilingual radio and television program for various target groups in other countries. Independent from ARD, but also organized under public law, are the nationwide broadcasters Deutschlandradio, with a total of three national radio programs, and Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF). Today, all broadcasters provide digital programs and services complementing their regular radio or television programs.

The diversity of broadcasters is also reflected by the archives of the individual stations. Each of the public broadcasting companies maintains its own archive. These archives contain not only the surviving radio and television broadcasts from the program, but also sources that provide additional contextual information, such as written material, photographs, and material objects. In addition to documentation of the broadcasting company’s institutional history, the archives also include collections about specific program, including, for example, letters to the editor. As sources of contemporary history, such letters provide insight into the impact of radio and television on its viewers. Donated manuscript collections from important personalities in broadcasting history, and other special collections, such as sheet music for live music broadcasts from broadcasting concert halls, also have their place in these archives. [3]

A special feature in the network of public broadcasting archives is the German Broadcasting Archive (DRA), a foundation jointly supported by ARD and Deutschlandradio, with two locations – in Frankfurt am Main and in Potsdam-Babelsberg. The DRA’s main focus is on the broadcasting collections from the Weimar Republic (1923-1933), National Socialism (1933-1945) and the radio and television of the German Democratic Republic (1945-1990). The DRA’s collections therefore represent an important addition to the holdings of the archives of the public broadcasters, documenting the historical development of broadcasting in Germany as a whole. German broadcasting history now spans over more than 100 years, and was shaped by political transformations and two forms of dictatorship, Nazi Germany and the GDR.  [4]

© DRA, Fotografie: Michael Risse
View into the television magazine of the German Broadcasting Archive, where the analog film holdings from the GDR’s television era are stored.

The fact that public broadcasting exists at all in the Federal Republic of Germany today is primarily due to National Socialism and the Allied occupation following World War II: During the Nazi era, centralized broadcasting was an important propaganda tool, a development that the allied powers strove to rule out after the end of the war. Based on the model of the British BBC, the Western occupying powers introduced a public broadcasting service: a service that operates independently from the state, is publicly financed (by all citizens), has a federal rather than a centralized structure, and that has an educational mandate in line with democratic principles. This is a model that was continued and expanded after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 and has essentially survived until today.  [5]

In the Soviet occupation zone, broadcasting was initially under the control of the Soviet Military Administration following the end of World War II. After the establishment of the GDR in 1949, state-controlled broadcasting was introduced, which lasted for several decades, until the fall of the Berlin Wall. In this respect, the unification of East and West Germany also led to groundbreaking changes in broadcasting policy. The GDR’s broadcasting system was dissolved. In the new federal states in the territory of the former GDR, new broadcasting stations were established, or the regions were included in the broadcasting areas of existing West German broadcasting stations. [6]

The establishment of Deutschlandradio, the only nationwide public radio station, was also a result of Germany’s unification in 1989/1990. Both Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor (RIAS Berlin), which was founded during the American occupation, and Deutschlandfunk, which was founded in the 1960s as a German response to propaganda radio measures by the GDR, and finally Deutschlandsender Kultur (DS Kultur), which emerged from the GDR’s radio station during the fall of communism, were transferred to a new national radio station in 1994: Deutschlandradio. Therefore, today’s Deutschlandradio archive includes not only its own programming assets, but also the records of the three predecessor stations.

Scholars who are interested in the history of German broadcasting today, or who are hoping to access the German broadcasting heritage for a variety of research projects, will therefore not only encounter the parallel structure of private and public broadcasters, but also a network of different broadcasting archives distributed throughout Germany.

Since 2014, however, this distributed archival landscape has become more accessible through a uniform access regulation for the archives of ARD, Deutschlandradio and ZDF. Since then, the public broadcasters have voluntarily committed themselves to opening their archives for academic research. Since 2021, the DRA has also taken on a coordinating and advisory role to simplify access to the holdings of ARD and Deutschlandradio. The DRA is available to assist with general and specific research inquiries, including advice on how to access the different collections, or with sharing contact information for specialists in the ARD and Deutschlandradio archives. The DRA is also the first point of contact if a you are interested in researching in the holdings of several institutions. However, if you are specifically interested in researching in the holdings of one of the public broadcasters, you are welcome to contact these archives directly. Just as at the DRA, an academic research liaison in each archive of the broadcasting corporations will assist you with your inquiry.


* To mark UNESCO’s World Audiovisual Heritage Day on October 27, 2020, the archives of the ARD stations and the German Broadcasting Archive have started making videos relevant to contemporary history freely accessible online. The focus is on regional and current television productions from before 1966, which will in the future be available under the label “ARD Retro” in the ARD Mediathek. Insights into the news and magazine features of GDR television are provided by the “Retro Spezial DDR,” which is made available by the DRA.

[1] See: Schwarzkopf, Dietrich, „Die “Medienwende” 1983,“ in: Schwarzkopf (ed.), Rundfunkpolitik in Deutschland. Wettbewerb und Öffentlichkeit, vol.1 (Munich: dtv, 1999): 29-49.

[2] This includes the Bayerische Rundfunk (BR), Hessische Rundfunk (HR), Mitteldeutsche Rundfunk (MDR), Norddeutsche Rundfunk (NDR), Radio Bremen, Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB), Saarländische Rundfunk (SR), Südwestdeutsche Rundfunk (SWR) and the Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR).

[3] See: Behmer, Markus/Bernard, Birgit/Hasselbring, Bettina (eds.), Das Gedächtnis des Rundfunks. Die Archive der öffentlich-rechtlichen Sender und ihre Bedeutung für die Forschung (Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2013).

[4] See: Dethlefs, Friedrich. „Ein Archiv für Tonaufnahmen. Geschichte und Bestände des Deutschen Rundfunkarchivs – Ein Überblick,“ in: Archivnachrichten aus Hessen 20:1 (2020): 36-41.

[5] See: Glässgen, Heinz, „Im öffentlichen Interesse. Einführung,“ in: Glässgen (ed.),Im öffentlichen Interesse. Auftrag und Legitimation des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks (Leipzig: Vistas, 2015): 11-19.

[6] For an overview of the German (East-and West) broadcasting history, see: Dussel, Konrad, Deutsche Rundfunkgeschichte, third rev. edition (Konstanz: UVK, 2010).

Links

Overview of the scholarship and research liaisons at the archives of ARD, Deutschlandradio and ZDF:
https://www.dra.de/fileadmin/www.dra.de/downloads/unser-service-fuer-sie/210916_AnsprechpartnerInnen_Archive_ARD_ZDF_DLR_NEU__007_.pdf [Nov. 21, 2020]

Regulations on research and academic access for  to the archives of the public broadcasting corporations in the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Broadcasting Archives:
https://www.dra.de/fileadmin/www.dra.de/downloads/unser-service-fuer-sie/Regelungen_zum_Archivzugang.pdf [Nov. 21, 2020]

Web presentation of the German Broadcasting Archive with information about holdings and access options: https://www.dra.de [Nov. 21, 2020]

Website of the Historical Commission of the ARD with information on the history of public service broadcasting in Germany:
https://historische-kommission.ard.de [Nov. 21, 2020]

ARD Retro, https://www.ardmediathek.de/retro [Nov. 11, 2012]

Retro Spezial DDR, https://www.ardmediathek.de/ard/retrospezialddr [Nov. 11, 2012]

Further reading

Behmer, Markus/Bernard, Birgit/Hasselbring, Bettina (eds). Das Gedächtnis des Rundfunks. Die Archive der öffentlich-rechtlichen Sender und ihre Bedeutung für die Forschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, 2013.

Dussel, Konrad. Deutsche Rundfunkgeschichte. 3rd, rev. Edition. Konstanz: UVK, 2010.

Glässgen, Heinz (ed.). Im öffentlichen Interesse. Auftrag und Legitimation des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks. Leipzig: Vistas, 2015.

Schwarzkopf, Dietrich (ed.). Rundfunkpolitik in Deutschland. Wettbewerb und Öffentlichkeit. 2 vols. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999.

Zugang für Wissenschaftler*innen zum deutschen Rundfunkerbe. Ein kurzer Einstieg in die Archivlandschaft von ARD und Deutschlandradio

Von Götz Lachwitz

Editorische Notiz: Götz Lachwitz ist seit August 2020 wissenschaftlicher Fachreferent beim Deutschen Rundfunkarchiv am Standort Potsdam-Babelsberg. Zu seinen Aufgaben gehört unter anderem die Koordination und Beratung bei ARD-weiten und allgemeinen Anfragen aus Wissenschaft und Forschung. Zuvor war er wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter im DFG-Projekt „Geschichte des dokumentarischen Films in Deutschland“ und Doktorand an der Universität Hamburg, wo er im Rahmen des Graduiertenkollegs „Vergegenwärtigungen. Repräsentationen der Shoah in komparatistischer Perspektive“ promoviert hat.

Sie sind Wissenschaftler*in und brauchen einen Überblick über die deutsche Radio- und Fernsehberichterstattung zu ihrem Forschungsthema? Sie interessieren sich für Radio- und Fernsehbeiträge von bestimmten Journalist*innen, Kameraleuten oder anderen Medienschaffenden aus den letzten 100 Jahren? Sie arbeiten an einer vergleichenden Studie über den Rundfunk in Ost- und Westdeutschland während des Kalten Krieges und suchen noch nach relevanten Quellen? Dann brauchen Sie Zugang zum deutschen Rundfunkerbe und zu den Archiven des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks.

© DRA, Fotografie: Waltraud Denger, ARD-Design
Zeitgeschichtlich relevante Videos sind frei zugänglich unter dem Label “ARD Retro” in der ARD Mediathek im Netz zu finden*

In Deutschland gibt es sowohl private, überwiegend werbefinanzierte Rundfunkanbieter, als auch öffentlich-rechtliche Rundfunkanstalten, denn der Rundfunk in Deutschland ist seit Anfang der 1980er Jahre nach dem dualen Prinzip organisiert.[1] Dadurch unterscheidet sich die deutsche von der amerikanischen Medienlandschaft, wo Radio- und Fernsehprogramme in der Regel von kommerziellen Anbietern produziert werden.[2]

Eine der wesentlichen Besonderheiten des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunksystems in Deutschland ist seine föderale Struktur. Das heißt jedes Bundesland (in einigen Fällen auch zwei oder mehr Bundesländer zusammen) verfügt über eine eigene Landesrundfunkanstalt mit jeweils eigenen Kompetenzen. Insgesamt neun Landesrundfunkanstalten senden Hörfunk- und Fernsehprogramme für die jeweilige Region.[3] Zusätzlich wird ein gemeinsames überregionales Fernsehprogramm im Rahmen der ARD, der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rundfunkanstalten, umgesetzt: Das Erste oder auch Das Erste Deutsche Fernsehen.

Ebenfalls zur ARD gehört der Auslandsrundfunk Deutsche Welle, der ein mehrsprachiges Hörfunk- und Fernsehprogramm für verschiedene Zielgruppen aus anderen Ländern produziert. Unabhängig von der ARD, aber ebenfalls öffentlich-rechtlich organisiert, agieren außerdem die bundesweit aufgestellten Rundfunkanstalten Deutschlandradio, mit insgesamt drei national ausgerichteten Radioprogrammen, und das Zweite Deutsche Fernsehen (ZDF). Alle diese Rundfunkanstalten publizieren heute neben verschiedenen Hörfunk- oder Fernsehprogrammen auch digitale Angebote.

Die Vielfalt an Rundfunkanstalten spiegelt sich auch in den Archiven der einzelnen Sender wider. Jede der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten unterhält ein eigenes Archiv. In diesen Archiven finden sich nicht nur die überlieferten Hörfunk- und Fernsehsendungen aus dem Programm, sondern auch zahlreiche kontextualisierende Quellen, wie Schriftgut, Fotografien und Sachzeugen. Darunter fallen natürlich Unterlagen, die die jeweilige Unternehmensgeschichte dokumentieren. Dazu können aber beispielsweise auch Leserbriefe zu Sendungen gehören, die als Quellen der Zeitgeschichte einen Einblick in die Wirkung von Radio und Fernsehen auf seine Zuschauer*innen ermöglichen. Auch Nachlässe bedeutender Persönlichkeiten der Rundfunkgeschichte und spezielle Sammlungen, wie die von Noten als Grundlage von live aus dem Sendesaal übertragener Musik, haben in diesen Archiven ihren Platz.[4]

Eine Besonderheit im Netzwerk der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkarchive ist das Deutsche Rundfunkarchiv (DRA), eine gemeinsam von der ARD und Deutschlandradio getragene Stiftung mit zwei Standorten – in Frankfurt am Main und Potsdam-Babelsberg. Zu den Überlieferungsschwerpunkten des DRA gehören die Bestände des Rundfunks aus der Zeit der Weimarer Republik (1923-1933), des Nationalsozialismus (1933-1945) und vom Hörfunk- und Fernsehen der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (1945-1990). Die Sammlungen des DRA stellen daher eine wichtige Ergänzung zu den Beständen der Archive der öffentlich-rechtlichen Sendeanstalten dar, um die gesamtdeutsche Geschichte des Rundfunks in den Blick nehmen zu können – eine Geschichte, die mittlerweile gut 100 Jahre umfasst und von verschiedenen Staatsformen nachhaltig geprägt wurde, darunter zwei Diktaturen.[5]

© DRA, Fotografie: Michael Risse
Blick ins Fernsehmagazin des Deutschen Rundfunkarchivs, wo die analogen Filmbestände aus der Zeit des Fernsehens der DDR aufbewahrt werden.

Dass es in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland heute überhaupt einen öffentlich-rechtlich organisierten Rundfunk gibt, hat seine Begründung vor allem in der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs und der Zeit unter alliierter Besatzung: Zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus war der zentralstaatlich organisierte Rundfunk ein wichtiges Propagandainstrument. Eine ähnliche Entwicklung sollte nach Kriegsende ausgeschlossen werden. Angelehnt an das Vorbild der britischen BBC wurde daher von den westlichen Besatzungsmächten ein öffentlich-rechtlicher Rundfunk eingeführt: ein vom Staat unabhängig agierender, öffentlich (das heißt von allen Bürger*innen) finanzierter, föderal statt zentralistisch aufgestellter Rundfunk mit einem Bildungsauftrag im Sinne demokratischer Prinzipien. Es handelt sich dabei um ein Modell, dass nach Gründung der Bundesrepublik fortgesetzt und ausgebaut wurde und im Wesentlichen bis heute Bestand hat.[6]

In der sowjetischen Besatzungszone stand der Rundfunk nach Kriegsende zunächst unter Kontrolle der Sowjetischen Militäradministration, bevor in der DDR ein staatlich kontrollierter Rundfunk eingeführt wurde, der mehrere Jahrzehnte lang Bestand hatte. Die Wiedervereinigung von Ost- und Westdeutschland führte insofern auch rundfunkpolitisch zu wegweisenden Veränderungen. Der Rundfunk der DDR wurde aufgelöst. In den neuen Bundesländern auf dem Gebiet der ehemaligen DDR wurden entweder neue Rundfunkanstalten gegründet oder die Sendegebiete bereits bestehender westdeutscher Rundfunkanstalten wurden erweitert.[7]

Auch die Gründung von Deutschlandradio, dem einzigen bundesweit aufgestellten öffentlich-rechtlichen Radiosender, ist eine Folge der Wiedervereinigung im Jahr 1989/1990. Sowohl der noch zur Zeit amerikanischer Besatzung gegründete Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor (kurz: RIAS Berlin), als auch der in den 1960er Jahren als bundesdeutsche Antwort auf propagandistische Radio-Maßnahmen von Seiten der DDR gegründete Sender Deutschlandfunk und schließlich der in der Wendezeit aus dem Rundfunk der DDR hervorgegangene Deutschlandsender Kultur (kurz: DS Kultur) wurden 1994 in einen neuen nationalen Hörfunk überführt: Deutschlandradio.[8] Das Archiv von Deutschlandradio umfasst daher heute nicht nur das eigene Programmvermögen, sondern auch die Überlieferung der drei Vorläuferanstalten.

Wer sich heute wissenschaftlich mit der deutschen Rundfunkgeschichte beschäftigt, oder auch mit Blick auf andere Fragestellungen Zugang zum deutschen Rundfunkerbe sucht, trifft also nicht nur auf ein Nebeneinander von privaten und öffentlich-rechtlich organisierten Rundfunkanstalten. Wissenschaftler*innen treffen auch auf ein Geflecht unterschiedlicher Archive, die in ganz Deutschland verteilt sind.

Dieser verteilten Archivsituation steht aber seit 2014 eine einheitliche Zugangsregelung für Wissenschaftler*innen zu den Archiven von ARD, Deutschlandradio und ZDF gegenüber. Seit diesem Zeitpunkt besteht eine freiwillige Selbstverpflichtung der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten ihre Archive für Wissenschaft und Forschung zu öffnen. Seit 2021 übernimmt außerdem das DRA eine koordinierende und beratende Funktion, die den Zugang zu den Beständen von ARD und Deutschlandradio vereinfachen soll. Bei allgemeinen wissenschaftlichen Anfragen, einer Beratung zu den Zugangsmöglichkeiten zu den Archivbeständen der Rundfunkanstalten oder bei der Suche nach der oder dem richtigen Ansprechpartner*in in den Archiven von ARD und Deutschlandradio, steht ihnen das DRA zur Seite. Auch ist das DRA der erste Ansprechpartner, wenn Sie sich für die Bestände mehrerer Häuser interessieren. Wenn Sie sich dagegen ganz konkret für die Bestände einer der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten interessieren, nehmen Sie gerne den direkten Kontakt auf. Genauso wie im DRA gibt es in jedem Archiv der Rundfunkanstalten eine/n Wissenschaftsansprechpartner*in, der oder die sie bei ihrem Anliegen unterstützen kann.

* Zum UNESCO Welttag des Audiovisuellen Erbes am 27. Oktober 2020 haben die Archive der ARD-Sender und das Deutsche Rundfunkarchiv begonnen, zeitgeschichtlich relevante Videos frei zugänglich ins Netz zu stellen. Im Fokus stehen regionale und aktuelle Fernsehproduktionen aus der Zeit vor 1966. Sie sind künftig unter dem Label „ARD Retro“ in der ARD Mediathek zu finden. Einblicke in die Nachrichten- und Magazin-Beiträge des DDR-Fernsehens gibt das „Retro Spezial DDR“, das vom DRA bereitgestellt wird.


[1] Vgl. dazu Schwarzkopf, Dietrich (1999): Die “Medienwende” 1983. In: Ders. (Hrsg.), Rundfunkpolitik in Deutschland. Wettbewerb und Öffentlichkeit. Band 1. München: dtv, S. 29-49.

[2] Zu den nicht-kommerziellen Rundfunkanbietern in den USA gehören der Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) und das National Public Radio (NPR).

[3] Dazu gehören heute der Bayerische Rundfunk (BR), der Hessische Rundfunk (HR), der Mitteldeutsche Rundfunk (MDR), der Norddeutsche Rundfunk (NDR), Radio Bremen, der Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB), der Saarländische Rundfunk (SR), der Südwestdeutsche Rundfunk (SWR) und der Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR).

[4] Vgl. Behmer, Markus/Bernard, Birgit/Hasselbring, Bettina (Hrsg.) (2013): Das Gedächtnis des Rundfunks. Die Archive der öffentlich-rechtlichen Sender und ihre Bedeutung für die Forschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

[5] Vgl. Dethlefs, Friedrich (2020): Ein Archiv für Tonaufnahmen. Geschichte und Bestände des Deutschen Rundfunkarchivs – Ein Überblick. In: Archivnachrichten aus Hessen, 20, 1, S. 36-41.

[6] Vgl. Glässgen, Heinz (2015): Im öffentlichen Interesse. Einführung. In: Ders. (Hrsg.), Im öffentlichen Interesse. Auftrag und Legitimation des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks. Leipzig: Vistas, S. 11-19.

[7] Für einen Überblick über die gesamtdeutsche Rundfunkgeschichte vgl. Dussel, Konrad (2010): Deutsche Rundfunkgeschichte. 3., überarbeitete Auflage, Konstanz: UVK.

[8] Vgl. Diller, Ansgar (1999): Der nationale Hörfunk. In: Schwarzkopf, Dietrich (Hrsg.), Rundfunkpolitik in Deutschland. Wettbewerb und Öffentlichkeit. Band 2. München: dtv, S. 978-1007.

Links

Übersicht über die Wissenschaftsansprechpartner*innen der Archive von ARD, Deutschlandradio und ZDF:
https://www.dra.de/fileadmin/www.dra.de/downloads/unser-service-fuer-sie/210916_AnsprechpartnerInnen_Archive_ARD_ZDF_DLR_NEU__007_.pdf

Regelungen über den Zugang für Wissenschaft und Forschung zum Archivgut der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und des Deutschen Rundfunkarchivs:
https://www.dra.de/fileadmin/www.dra.de/downloads/unser-service-fuer-sie/Regelungen_zum_Archivzugang.pdf

Webauftritt des Deutschen Rundfunkarchivs mit Informationen über Bestände und Zugangsmöglichkeiten:
https://www.dra.de

Webauftritt der Historischen Kommission der ARD mit Informationen zur Geschichte des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks in Deutschland:
https://historische-kommission.ard.de

ARD Retro, https://www.ardmediathek.de/retro

Retro Spezial DDR, https://www.ardmediathek.de/ard/retrospezialddr

Weiterführende Literatur

Behmer, Markus/Bernard, Birgit/Hasselbring, Bettina (Hrsg.) (2013): Das Gedächtnis des Rundfunks. Die Archive der öffentlich-rechtlichen Sender und ihre Bedeutung für die Forschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

Dussel, Konrad (2010): Deutsche Rundfunkgeschichte. 3., überarbeitete Auflage, Konstanz: UVK.

Glässgen, Heinz (Hrsg.) (2015): Im öffentlichen Interesse. Auftrag und Legitimation des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks. Leipzig: Vistas.

Schwarzkopf, Dietrich (Hrsg.) (1999): Rundfunkpolitik in Deutschland. Wettbewerb und Öffentlichkeit. 2 Bände. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Between Progress and Sublime Reverie: Revisiting 19th-Century America through Digital Art Exhibitions

By Chiara Fralick

Chiara A. Fralick is a graduate student of North American Studies at the University of Cologne. She has focused on art and literatures of the 19th century as well as Indigenous oral histories. Currently she is researching interactions of poetry and land ethics in the environmental humanities. The working title of her Master’s thesis is “Nature Spirited Away: Exploring Ecological Empathy and Native Nations Poetics.” In the fall of 2021, she completed her remote internship at the GHI Washington, DC.

The other day I found myself wondering when I had been to a museum last. I love a good exhibition, so it’s an odd thing for me not to remember. But since the beginning of 2020, like so many of us, I have neither travelled much, nor sought out public places. So something that has made lockdown a little sweeter for me are digital exhibitions. One of my favourite museums to explore online, at the moment, is the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. It has an enormous online collection that not only features various paintings and artefacts, but also provides audio tours, interactive floor plans of the museum’s galleries, educational resources, and a world map to explore the museum’s art by location.

Asher B. Durand, Progress (The Advance of Civilization), VMFA, https://www.vmfa.museum/piction/6027262-192288967/

Under the “Recently Acquired” section for American Art, I found Asher B. Durand’s painting Progress (The Advance of Civilization). Arguably one of his most famous works, it dates back to 1853 and depicts an evening scene speckled with industrial themes. As viewers, we are overlooking a bay engulfed by rolling hills of old-growth forest, distant mountains and a soft cloudscape bathed in golden light from the setting sun. There is a wagon trail that enters from the right, on which cattle are being brought in and goods are carried. A person ploughs their field, smaller boats frequent a stream and houses spring up here and there. Further along the shoreline a coal train passes over a viaduct and even further still, just slightly off centre, we can make out a busy industrial port with steamboats and the smoking chimneys of a larger town and factory. The painting’s composition allows the trail of industrialisation to progress from right to left – east to west – ending with the last ship almost in line with the setting sun. It is a typical and popular visualisation of 19th-century westward movement, predominantly used by a group of landscape painters called the Hudson River School, of which Durand was a leading figure. With this in mind, and considering the title of the painting, it is not surprising that for the longest time, Asher Durand’s Progress had been linked to American expansionism.

When I first spotted the miniature version of Progress, I mistook it at a glance for another one of Durand’s paintings: The Indian’s Vespers. The VMFA’s website works with visual cues, i.e. it gives you a small preview of an artefact or painting and only reveals the title once you move your curser over it. The digital collection thereby cleverly mimics the nature of an actual museum. Yet, The Indian’s Vespers has been in the White House Collection for half a century now, so it is doubtful we will see it in a museum any time soon. Instead, we can view it in the digital library provided by the White House Historical Association, albeit not in the highest resolution. The association was founded by First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in 1961, with the “mission to protect, preserve, and provide public access to the rich history of America’s Executive Mansion.” It is definitely another form of online exhibit I would recommend. Their platform includes everything from newspaper clippings and photographs to a vast collection of the White House’s art and decor with detailed descriptions. The Indian’s Vespers is displayed in the Red Room.

Asher B. Durand, The Indian’s Vespers, 1847, The White House, Wikimedia Commons

The resemblance to Progress is indeed remarkable – and at the same time they couldn’t be more different. While Progress is renowned for seemingly capturing the expansionist zeitgeist of 19th-century America to a fault, The Indian’s Vespers is entirely void of any signs of industrialisation. Instead, it highlights the liveliness of nature, creating a dynamic current that runs in concentric lines around the sun. Durand saw it as the artist’s duty to portray “the spiritual beauty with which nature is animate,”[i] which is interesting, because it does not at all seem to sit well with the expansionist theme that so ardently advocates human power over nature. This is where the other movement that influenced the American art scene comes in: German Romanticism. The Hudson River School was closely affiliated with the Düsseldorf school of painting, with some American painters having even studied at the German academy themselves. For the Romantic movement in Germany, then, the revolution of imagination and animation of nature were key ingredients. It seems American painters tried to reconcile the expansionist and romantic side of their country by preserving a version of nature in their paintings that would remain untouched by industrialisation. This inner conflict between advocating the advance of American civilisation and the heartfelt sadness at the destruction of nature has been called the Romantic dilemma of the nineteenth century.

Detail from Asher Durand, Progress, https://www.vmfa.museum/piction/6027262-192288967/

This dilemma is perceivable even in an expansionist masterpiece such as Progress. The clue lies in the painting’s details and might easily be missed if we were looking at Progress in a museum. The painting’s composition is clever indeed – it guides our attention by means of perspective and lighting to the painting’s industrial centre, leaving the front quite literally in the shadows. The VFMA’ website, however, provides close-ups that invite us to reconsider the foreground. In the left detail of the painting we recognise a small group of Indigenous people overlooking the scene, which counterbalances the prominent entry from the right. Once noticed, they are impossible to miss and present the viewer with an alternative perspective and approach to the scene – an alternative lifestyle, even. If we then look at the detailed fragment of the bottom right of the painting, we notice another figure, with walking stick and a large bundle on his back, hiking out of the picture. In the highly-recommendable Panorama article Asher Durand’s Progress Reconsidered, art historian Rebecca Bedell interprets him as “a stand-in for the artist, turning his back on the path of progress.” Who knows, she writes, he might even “climb up to join the Native Americans on their perch.”

Did Durand indeed manage to hide the devil in the detail, so that more than one and a half centuries later, we are starting to see Progress in a different context and read it as anti-expansionist instead of glorifying industrialisation? In fact, ever since the painting was gifted to the VMFA by an anonymous donor, people have started to look at it with fresh perspective and more thorough contextualisation. In an interview with VPM (Virginia’s home for Public Media), the chief curator at the VMFA, Michael Taylor, explains that “this opportunity to provide new context happens when a classic work of art moves from private hands to a space where it can be publicly viewed, analyzed and questioned.” It is a privilege of our digital age that this space does not only exist in museums, but by now also online. I have found the wealth of digital source material for art history invaluable for my own research, especially in these past twenty months or so in which my home suddenly became office, lecture hall, museum and archive at the same time.

The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts is of course only one example of many, many more museums that went online over the past years – and, sadly at least for a while, could be explored exclusively online due to COVID-19. But online exhibits are a fantastic way to continue to integrate art into our education, zoom-classrooms, term papers, presentations or leisure time activities. At the beginning of the first lockdown, PBS even published an article about “19 immersive museum exhibits you can visit from your couch” and as diverse as these online collections may seem, they all have one thing in common: they take us on a journey, entertain us and sometimes – as is the case with Durand’s Progress – challenge us to question long-established convictions.

Literature and Links

Durand, John, The Life and Times of A. B. Durand, (1894), Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 2006.

Miller, Angela, “The Empire of the Eye: Landscape Representation and American Cultural Politics, 1825-1875,” Cornell University Press: Ithaca and London, 1993

Miller, Perry, “The Romantic Dilemma in American Nationalism and the Concept of Nature,” The Har- vard Theological Review 48,4 (1955).

Solomon, Peter, “Framing Progress: VMFA To Place $40 Million Asher Durand Painting In Context With Native American Art” WCVE News, Virginia Current, npr news, January 31, 2019. https://vp- m.org/news/articles/3367/framing-progress-vmfa-to-place-40-million-asher-durand-painting-in-context- with.

Asher B. Durand, The Indian’s Vespers by, 1847, The White House, Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Indian’s_Vespers_by_Asher_Brown_Durand,_1847.jpg

Asher B. Durand, Progress (The Advance of Civilization), VMFA, https://www.vmfa.museum/piction/6027262-192288967/


[i] Bedell, Rebecca, “Asher Durand’s Progress Reconsidered,” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 5,1 (2019), https://doi.org/10.24926/24716839.1688. p.4.

The Junge Mommsen – a Digital Student Magazine Publishing Exemplary Term Papers

By Paul Diekmann

Paul Diekmann is studying history and American studies at Humboldt University in Berlin and is currently working on his bachelor’s thesis about the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. His remote internship at the GHI from August to Oktober 2021 has not only advanced his thesis a lot, but also allowed him to work on a variety of historical projects while broadening his skills. Being an active member of the student council at his home university, he has participated in every edition of the Junge Mommsen so far – twice as editor, once as an author.

 

The Junge Mommsen was born in 2018 at our student council’s annual summer retreat. Because most exams at Humboldt University’s department of history take the form of term papers, we thought about ways of sharing examples of good papers. Somebody mentioned that there already existed a cabinet with term papers that received good grades in our student council’s room. However those were accessed only once or twice a semester – there had to be a way to make this collection more accessible. Then we came up with the idea to turn it into a digital magazine.

Over the course of the following months we developed a strategy of creating such a magazine. We had a few meetings to figure out a mode of selecting the papers that would be published. And, most importantly, we came up with a name: The Junge Mommsen (young Mommsen) is named after our institute’s mascot, Theodor Mommsen – himself an historian at the university of Berlin, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his Roman History in 1902. Our magazine’s aim was to help those “young Mommsens” at our department. Finally, early in 2019, we could announce our first call for papers.

The requirements are relatively simple: The paper had to be submitted during the last academic year with a grade no worse than 1,7 (which parallels an A-) and it had to meet the official standards set by the department of history. Once we had a sufficient number of papers submitted, we selected the ones we would publish. One of our editors has anonymized the papers, so we wouldn’t be biased in our decision if we knew one of the authors. Then each paper was reviewed by at least two editors and evaluated in three categories (readability, argumentative structure and creativity of the topic). Once every paper was reviewed, all of us met and discussed which papers we wanted to publish. Generally, we didn’t just look at the paper’s quality, but also tried to get a well-rounded mixture of papers: At least one from each of the three main historic periods (ancient, medieval and modern times), papers written by both undergraduate and graduate students and preferably one paper written in English (while most classes and exams are in German at Humboldt-University, there are some classes for graduate students in English). After the selection process we worked with the authors to standardize the format of the papers, especially the footnotes and got their consent to publish their paper. Finally, we publish the papers.

From the beginning we were using digital methods to make the Junge Mommsen as accessible as possible. Our website, run via Humboldt University’s edoc-server, serves both as the portal to submit papers as well as the main access to the finished editions of the magazine. This digital publication method greatly helped us to keep the magazine alive when Covid-19 hit: Although we couldn’t meet in person to discuss the papers, we could easily work on them from home and use online platforms to coordinate our tasks. So, the project could be continued after the first edition and we could publish the second edition in the summer of 2020 with only a slight delay. While both the first and the second edition were eventually printed as well, most readers prefer to download the digital version.

While the Junge Mommsen isn’t perfect – it comes with the usual setbacks and delays of a project run by students in their free time – it’s definitely a huge improvement to the old method of keeping some good term papers in our student council’s room. Our main objective is to give young students examples of what is expected from them in a term paper. We’re certain our digital magazine is much more successful in offering this kind of example than the old cabinet with old copies. The response to it has also been mostly positive, both by students and professors. This year we even won Humboldt University’s open access award.

Link to the Junge Mommsen’s website: https://www.junge-mommsen.de/

What Makes a Witch a Witch? A Brief History of the 17th Century Trials of Lemgo

By Lea Katharina Neikes

Editorial note: Lea Katharina Neikes is studying history and art history (Geschichtswissenschaften/Bild- und Kunstgeschichte) at the University of Bielefeld, Germany. Through her remote internship in the summer/autumn 2021 at the GHI, she has found new impulses for her upcoming bachelor thesis. Currently she is researching the comparison of different burial sites during the Dia de los muertos/All Saints and the construction/ effect of American and German/European cemeteries. Suitable for the Halloween month, she explored a (spooky) piece of her regional history for the href blog.

Two postcards featuring Lemgo’s history as a witch’s nest, 1920s (left) and 1970s (right). Source: Museum Hexenbürgermeisterhaus Lemgo

Have you ever heard of the city of Lemgo? No? Well, this small German town is rather well known among the citizen of North Rhine-Westphalia for its history as a “Witch’s nest” and its gruesome history of witchcraft trials. When I started my studies at the University of Bielefeld, I quickly realized that almost everyone there knew about it, everyone except for me. In fact, with about 200 trial records preserved in the city archives, the city is one of the most substantial memorials of witchcraft trials in Germany. After the 30 Years War (1618-1648), poverty and superstition had precipitated witchcraft hunts in numerous locations. It is estimated that 250 people, about 80 percent of them women, fell victim to the trials in Lemgo. There were at least two waves of persecution. The last one from 1665 to 1681 gained tragic prominence through the so-called “Hexenbürgermeister” (witch mayor) Hermann Cothmann.

Cothmann used the delusion of witchcraft to carry out his personal interests in power and to eliminate his opponents. The last witchcraft trial against Maria Rampendahl, who escaped with her life, also took place during his term of office. In 1681 the confident 36-year-old woman was interrogated for the first time, but was not intimidated by the threat of torture. Even two days later, under torture, she made no confession. Her final sentence was eternal banishment from the city and the country, a sentence that did certainly not sit well with her. Instead of accepting banishment, Maria Rampendahl sued those responsible before the Imperial Chamber Court. The proceedings ended in 1682 with her losing. Still her statements before the main court represent one of the most impressive ego documents in the collection. The trials finally ended in 1715, when the “Black Book”, in which all witchcraft accusations had been collected, was publicly burned on the market square.

Maria-Rampendal-Ehefrau-des-Barbiers-Hermann-Hermensen-1681-1682, Stadtverweisung, Stadtarchiv Lemgo, 01.02.02 A, A 3672

 

But who were the victims and how did they become victims? Of fundamental importance in this context is the question of the relevance of the category “gender” for early modern witchcraft hunts. The condemned and accused were almost exclusively female, predominantly old and often widowed. The categories of gender, age, and marital status were decisive for the labeling of a woman as a witch. One assumption is that calling a woman a witch was related to conflict. In fact, persons who were in a conflicted relationship with the accused were given preference by the council to take the stand.

Against the stereotypical persecution of women speaks the drastically increasing number of “atypical” witches. These include children as well as younger and “honorable” women, but especially Men. Andreas Koch, a priest, spoke out against the witchcraft trials and was therefore executed for being a “witch”.

Another peculiarity of the accusations in Lemgo is the symbolism used exclusively for men. For example, the brewer Olieschleger, who abused his wife, sexually assaulted his maids and offended the moral sensibilities of his neighbors, was not on trial as a witch but as a werewolf!

Schmähbrief gegen David Welman als Werwolf, 1642 (Stadtarchiv Lemgo A 4694)

This examples can only be deciphered by asking in what ways gender discourse and witchcraft discourse intertwine. From the perspective of the townspeople his wife, otherwise see as vulnerable to Satan’s wiles and dependent on male leadership, appeared as an example of Christian virtue while her husband was out of control. Besides the witch trials, there also existed so-called werewolf trials. In general, the accused persons were exclusively men.

“Witches” were said to use, primarily, harmful spells. These were based on the stereotypical image of insidious and devious femininity. “Werewolves”, on the other hand, were said to have done animal like damage. And thus embodied a strongly masculine conception. The fact that a man could still be accused of being a witch was based on behavior, not interpreted as emphatically masculine, but as witchy-feminine.

Mitschriften von zwei Geständnissen oder Besagungen? (Stadtarchiv Lemgo A 10879)

Nevertheless, the files are questionable as they are part, product and medium of one or more discourses on witchcraft. As a result, it is primarily what “made sense” in this context that has been handed down. Another problem is that the respective men „in power“ determined the socioeconomic status of women. During the witchcraft hunts, social structures could put women at a disadvantage when it came to building a “lobby” to help fend off the attack on their reputation. Women were also more likely to become outsiders.

The above shows how strongly the meaning and interpretation of “gender” influenced the witchcraft trials in Lemgo. In addition to the personal enrichment of individuals, the effect, status and perception of the accused in the society also played a major role. Above all, it shows that research must depart from typical assumptions in order to understand the people behind it. In addition to the aspects mentioned, the source situation still offers many other research possibilities. For example, the interconnectedness of the witchcraft hunts with the surrounding towns is largely unexplored. Letters and court records that are preserved at the city archives Lemgo, some of which have been digitized and made available online, offer the possibility to explore these and other research questions, on the basis of these original records.

Thanks to Casey Sutcliffe and the participants of the GHI writing workshops for their helpful suggestions and edits of the draft for this blog post.

Literature and links:

Link to the Lemgo city archives finding aid, council and magistrate court-witch trials: https://www.archive.nrw.de/archivsuche?link=FINDBUCH-20029200001782

Museum Hexenbürgermeisterhaus Lemgo, https://p57155.typo3server.info/hexenbuergermeisterhaus_home.html

Gisela Wilbert; Gerd Schwerhoff; Jürgen Scheffler (Hg.): Hexenverfolgung und Regionalgeschichte. Die Grafschaft Lippe im Vergleich, Bielefeld 1994.

Gisela Wilbertz, Jürgen Scheffler (Hrsg.): Biographieforschung und Stadtgeschichte. Lemgo in der Spätphase der Hexenverfolgung. Bielefeld 2000.

Brief einer im Hexenprozess Angeklagten? (StaL A 10879), Archivblog Lippe, https://liparchiv.hypotheses.org/954/a_10879_004

Maria-Rampendal-Ehefrau-des-Barbiers-Hermann-Hermensen-1681-1682, Stadtverweisung, Stadtarchiv Lemgo, 01.02.02 A, A 3672

Schmähbrief gegen David Welman als Werwolf, 1642, Stadtarchiv Lemgo A 4694

 

 

 

 

The very first monthly astronomical journal in Germany: The Celestial Police and their structures of communication

By Janna Katharina Müller

Editorial note: Janna Katharina Müller studies the history and theory of science and technology [“Theorie und Geschichte der Wissenschaft und Technik”] at the Technische Universität Berlin. She’s currently working on her Master’s thesis focusing on the emergence and formation of a concept of the newly discovered asteroids between Mars and Jupiter in the first years after their discovery, 1801–1813. The title of her thesis is: “Von Planeto-Cometen und planetarischen Fragmenten. Die Himmels-Polizey und Asteroidenforschung im frühen 19. Jahrhundert.“ In the spring/summer 2021, she completed a remote internship at the GHI Washington, DC.

A while ago, I was preparing for an oral exam in one of my classes about the history of science during the Enlightenment and the early 19th century. We had to focus on one specific discipline or time period and give a short presentation about it. I decided to prepare a talk about the history of astronomy during that given time frame, and as I worked my way through historical surveys, an anecdote about a group of astronomers kept catching my eye: Six German astronomers founded an association in the early 19th century to track down undiscovered planets – and called themselves the “Himmels-Polizey”, the Celestial Police. They did not find any planets, but they did find the first asteroids – ahistorically speaking – and thus formed the prelude for the Minor Planet Research of the 19th and especially the 20th century.

Unfortunately, that was all the information I could initially find. The Celestial Police – what a name! – did not leave my mind completely, however. In fact, when I started considering possible Master’s thesis topics, I returned to the Celestial Police. In this post, I will introduce a digital source corpus that I located online that can be traced back to their work. In subsequent posts, I plan to reflect on my use of digital sources and tools.

One of these six astronomers involved was Franz Xaver von Zach, court astronomer to the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, in what is now Thuringia. Although he did not personally discover an asteroid, the literature attributes to him an important role in facilitating and coordinating the asteroid discoveries and exploration by organizing meetings among astronomers, initiating the formation of an astronomical society (our Celestial Police), and publishing journals, i.e., creating communicative infrastructures. After spending the early 1780s in Paris and London, von Zach became court astronomer to Duke Ernst II in 1786 and helped build the new observatory on the Seeberg near Gotha. In the following years, von Zach led this observatory to high reputation and, among other things, had many astronomers visiting his observatory again and again, so that he is credited with organizing the first ‘Astronomers’ Congress’ in 1798. Another important meeting took place in September 1800, when von Zach was joined by the German astronomers Schroeter, Olbers, and Harding, and the two state officials (and lay astronomers) von Ende and Gildemeister: During this meeting, they decided to establish a society that would be dedicated, among other things, to the search for previously unknown planets. In this society with the official name “Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft” (United Astronomical Society) 18 additional astronomers from all over Europe were invited to divide the area around the ecliptic (apparent course of the sun in front of the background of the fixed stars) into 24 zones à 15° longitude and 7-8° northern and southern latitude, and divide these among the members for survey. Von Zach wrote in 1801 that such a

„[…] streng organisirte, in 24 Departements abgetheilte Himmels-Polizey hofften wir endlich, diesem, unsern Blicken sich so lange entzogenen Planeten, wenn er anders existirt und sich sichtbar zeigt, auf die Spuhr zu kommen.“

“[…] strictly organized Celestial Police, divided into 24 departments, we finally hoped to get to track down this planet, which has eluded our gaze for so long, if it exists otherwise and shows itself visibly.” (von Zach, Monthly Correspondence, June issue 1801)

Seal of the “United Astronomical Society” with its motto: “Non frustra signorum obitus speculamur et ortus” (Not in vain do we observe the sets of the signs of the zodiac and their rises), in Schroeter, 1805.

Von Zach maintained active contacts with astronomers throughout Europe, especially those in the Paris Académie, such as Lalande or Burckhardt. This correspondence, voluminous by the standards of the time, also formed the basis for von Zach’s publishing activities: In 1798, he founded the Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden (AGE), which, in contrast to Bode’s famous Astronomisches Jahrbuch, the most important German periodical publication up to that time, appeared monthly and covered not only geographical but also – closely related – astronomical topics. In addition to essays, book and map reviews, he also included excerpts from his correspondence on astronomical observations and calculations. Soon, however, he realized that dealing with both sets of topics in one journal was getting a bit out of hand and that the correspondence part was taking up more and more space. For this reason, he founded the Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde (Monthly Correspondence for the Advancement of Terrestrial and Celestial Science, short MC) in 1800. The MC, like the AGE, was issued monthly until December 1813. Fortunately, both sources have been digitized by the Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Jena (Thuringian University and State Library in Jena) and are accessible free of charge in their portal journals@UrMEL (here and here). Without this resource, it would not have been possible for me to access these sources in the last months, since not only the archives were closed due to the pandemic until recently, but also travel was discouraged, even within Germany.

In these blog posts, as in my master’s thesis, I will focus on the MC, as it is the more relevant source corpus for my research on the conceptual evolution of the newly discovered asteroids. The texts published in the periodical on mainly astronomical topics were partially (translated) treatises from other publications, and partially also – as the name suggests – complete letters from Zach’s correspondendents, compilations of excerpts from letters on a certain subject area, and summaries from correspondence whose content Zach communicated in a referential manner. It not only covers the period when the first asteroids were discovered and first studied, but also gathers among its authors many renowned astronomers who were interested in and studied the new celestial bodies, besides the founding members of the Celestial Police. The monthly and for this time remarkably short-period publication of the MC allowed von Zach to circulate news from the world of astronomy faster among an interested ‘expert audience’. At the same time, it provided for a speedy exchange of observations and calculations as well as conjectures and hypotheses, which were of course advantageous for astronomical positioning. These features offer the (incredible) opportunity of reconstructing and analyzing scholarly debates and discussions at the time.

Title page of the “Monatliche Correspondenz” from 1803.

Unfortunately, the source corpus of 28 volumes of six issues each is strikingly under-researched. Except for a book by Dieter Herrmann on astronomical journals in Germany and a work by Peter Brosche on the life of Zach, there are no in-depth analyses of the history of this journal. Yet it is full of exciting topics, aside from the detailed exploration of the asteroids: In addition to travel reports by the young Alexander von Humboldt from South America, geographical surveys of the world, reports on solar eclipses and comet phenomena, treatises on the new metric system, it includes all kinds of studies on the sun, the moon and the stars that are yet to be explored.

The fact that the MC merges two genres of textual sources, letters as well as the nascent journal, makes it particularly exciting for historians of science. On the one hand, it offers the opportunity to reflect on the emergence of the “Fachzeitschrift” (scholarly or scientific journal) as a medium in the German-speaking world. On the other, historians can follow disciplinary developments in the history of astronomy and related sciences on a case-study basis. The Monatliche Correspondenz is thus a very special source. In subsequent blog posts, I will explore its characteristics as a digital source.

Sources

Aubin, David, Charlotte Bigg, and H. Otto Sibum, eds. The Heavens on Earth. Observatories and Astronomy in Nineteenth-Century Science and Culture. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2010.

Brosche, Peter. Der Astronom der Herzogin. Leben und Werk von Franz Xaver von Zach, 1754–1832. Acta Historica Astronomiae 12. Frankfurt a.M.: Harri Deutsch, 2001.

Herrmann, Dieter B. Die Entstehung der Astronomischen Fachzeitschriften in Deutschland (1798-1821). Veröffentlichungen der Archenhold-Sternwarte Berlin-Treptow 5. Berlin-Treptow: Archenhold-Sternwarte, 1972.

Schroeter, Johann Hieronymus. Lilienthalische Beobachtungen der neu entdeckten Planeten Ceres, Pallas und Juno, zur genauen und richtigen Kenntniß ihrer wahren Grössen, Atmosphären und übrigen merkwürdigen Naturverhältnisse im Sonnengebiete. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck-Ruprechtische Buchhandlung, 1805, HathiTrust, https://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015064586707.

Zach, Franz Xaver von, ed. Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde. Gotha: Beckersche Buchhandlung, 1800-1813, Urmel/ThuLB, https://zs.thulb.uni-jena.de/receive/jportal_jpvolume_00202775.

 

Transatlantic Connections of the Women’s Movement in the Long 19th Century: Interview with Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson

Editorial Note: Professor Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson has been Chair of the Transatlantic History and Culture Department at the University of Augsburg since 2016. Previously, she served for five years as Deputy Director of the German Historical Institute in Washington, D.C. Her research focuses on Transatlantic relations, African American history, women’s history, and religious history.

As part of her blog series on the history of the women’s movement in a transatlantic perspective, Marietheres Pirngruber spoke with Professor Waldschmidt-Nelson in April 2021.

Interview: Marietheres Pirngruber
Translation: Erik Brown

During your time at the GHI, you published an anthology on the transatlantic linkages of the women’s rights movement. What fascinates you about this topic?

I must confess that I have always been fascinated by the history of oppressed groups. After all, I have done a lot of research in the area of African American history. There is also a history of oppression among women. With a few exceptions, the female sex has been massively disadvantaged for thousands of years, not only in Europe and America, but across the world. Women have been oppressed, exploited, and disenfranchised in patriarchal, sometimes religiously based social orders. And if truth be told, in most countries, women were denied access to higher education and professional occupations well into the 20th century; moreover, they were politically incapacitated. In some countries, that’s still the case today.

What fascinates me most about this history is that there have always been truly courageous women who have resisted, who have rebelled against their oppression. In the 18th century, the ideas of the Enlightenment and the two great revolutions – the American and the French Revolutions – brought equality and equal rights to the forefront. Two women who, inspired by these ideas, drafted writings for women’s rights as early as 1791 and 1792 were Olympe de Gouges and Mary Wollstonecraft. Their writings spread like wildfire; they were translated into a wide variety of languages around the world and are still considered to be the founding documents of feminism today.

In today’s world, it is taken for granted to exchange ideas across continents. How could an exchange and cooperation work in the 19th century? 

It was a relatively complex development that took a long time. After all, following the early feminist writings I just mentioned, it still took about half a century, until the middle of the 19th century, before real action followed. So, the question is, how did an exchange between women come about? Why did it not exist before? For this, it is important to remember the idealistic and technical achievements of that time. On the one hand, as I already mentioned, there was the new mindset of the Enlightenment, and then industrialization and urbanization were also very important. Through them, a new middle class had formed, which no longer consisted only of aristocratic women, but made it possible for a larger number of women to learn to read and write. They were all able to read the new writings that were now coming into circulation and then spread and manifested these ideas more and more. Another important factor was the transportation and communication revolution. The facilities of steamships, for example, reduced the crossing time from Europe to America from over six weeks to nine days. This was a real revolution; it was not only about the passage of people, but also of newspapers, letters, pamphlets, and appeals. These could now be distributed at six times speed. Railroad networks were also being expanded on the continents, and communication was further improved with the help of new telegraph connections.

Another important aspect were the many social reform movements at the beginning of the 19th century. Essential to the emergence of an international women’s rights movement, for example, was the abolitionist, or anti-slavery, movement. Women were very strongly involved in this movement and learned there, as they later put it, “the tools of movement building.” So, how do I organize public protests, how do I prepare, for example, demonstrations, petitions, how do I write calls for action? How can I hold public speeches in the first place, because this was also something very new and revolutionary for women at that time? These were skills that many women first learned through their involvement in the abolitionist movement. And it was within these movements that women first developed the awareness that they themselves were oppressed as women. The idea was: black people can’t vote, but we can’t vote either. Of course, it was not quite comparable, but it did develop an awareness of gender discrimination. For that matter, it is also very fascinating to see that nearly exactly 100 years later, the same thing, or something very similar, happened again, because out of the participation of women in the black civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, Second Wave Feminism then developed in the United States.

International Congress of Women in 1915. LSE Library, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:International_Congress_of_Women1915_(22785230005).jpg

Did these women share the same convictions for the most part, or were there also different views based on their national origins?

That is also a very fascinating question, and it is not so easy to answer. I would say for the period up to the 1920s, when a large part of Western countries introduced women’s suffrage, the national differences were not particularly great. I would want to make more of a chronological differentiation there. Until the mid-19th century, women were primarily concerned with property and contractual rights. In the legal sense, a woman used to be only a ward, or a minor. She was either her father’s ward, then her husband’s ward after marriage, or her brother’s ward without marriage. For example, if women brought their inheritance into the marriage, the money or houses belonged to the husband. Or, in the case of separation, custody of the children was almost always awarded to the man; the children were virtually his property as well, not the woman’s. I would say that by the middle of the 19th century, the fight against these laws was a priority for women’s rights activists in almost every country, and the first successes in this area soon followed. From the 1860s on, the focus then shifted a bit in the U.S. and later also in Europe to the second major priority: access to education and to professional occupations, as it was forbidden for women, for example, almost everywhere to go to college.

So, the struggle was first focused on not making themselves economically subject to blackmail by allowing women to hold their own property and thus be somewhat independent. The second step was to focus on access to education and professional jobs, and then, especially in the last third of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, came the struggle for the right to vote. The idea that women should vote seemed too radical to many before, and the timing of the beginning of the women’s suffrage movement varied in different countries. In Great Britain, the so-called suffragettes were active much earlier than in Germany. At the same time, several international women’s peace movements were formed: Many women believed that men were always causing war and destruction and that it was up to women to work together for peace. For example, the Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom was founded in 1915. However, these international women’s associations for peace, women’s rights, or social justice usually disintegrated rather quickly in the event of war. Women’s concerns were quickly subordinated to national interests. From the 1920s onward, the focus of the respective women’s rights movements in individual countries then developed with greater national differences than before. Since women’s suffrage had spread more or less nationwide, it continued in different forms depending on the national legal situation – similarly with regard to reproductive rights, labor rights, or access to political office.

Why is it important today as a historian to continue to research these networks?

Today, we still do not have real gender equality, therefore I think it is very important to deal with the attempts of earlier women’s rights activists to build networks and to develop successful strategies. On one hand, you can ideally learn from this what worked and what did not. At the same time, I also think it instills courage to look at the history of these women. Sometimes you think you could almost despair that nothing is happening. But when I compare our situation today with the situation back then and see how these women kept going, sometimes even going to prison for their ideals, and still did not give up, I find that very inspiring. We must always remind ourselves not to give up hope. But also, that you can’t just sit there passively, that you have to actively stand up against the oppression of women through your publications, your political involvement, or other activities. I think this message that you really have to keep fighting for progress and gender equality in social, economic, and political spheres is something that these older women’s rights movements and networks can inspire us to do. To end with the words of the African American feminist Ella Baker, “The struggle continues. Somebody else carries on.”

 

Transatlantische Verflechtungen der Frauenbewegung im langen 19. Jahrhundert: Interview mit Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson

Editorische Notiz: Professorin Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson ist seit 2016 Lehrstuhlinhaberin für die Geschichte des Europäisch-Transatlantischen Kulturraums an der Universität Augsburg. Zuvor war sie fünf Jahre lang als stellvertretende Direktorin des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Washington, D.C. tätig. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen auf transatlantischen Beziehungen, afroamerikanischer Geschichte, Frauengeschichte und Religionsgeschichte.

Als Teil ihrer Blogserie zur Geschichte der Frauenbewegung in transatlantischer Perspektive hat sich Marietheres Pirngruber mit Professor Waldschmidt-Nelson im April 2021 unterhalten.

Sie haben während Ihrer Zeit am GHI einen Sammelband zum Thema transatlantische Verflechtungen der Frauenrechtsbewegung herausgegeben. Was fasziniert Sie an diesem Thema?

Ich muss gestehen, dass mich die Geschichte von unterdrückten Gruppen schon immer fasziniert hat. Ich habe ja auch viel im Bereich der afroamerikanischen Geschichte geforscht. Auch bei den Frauen gibt es eine Geschichte der Unterdrückung. Bis auf wenige Ausnahmen ist das weibliche Geschlecht ja nicht nur in Europa und in Amerika, sondern weltweit, seit tausenden von Jahren massiv benachteiligt worden. Frauen sind in patriarchalischen, teilweise religiös begründeten Gesellschaftsordnungen unterdrückt, ausgebeutet und entrechtet worden. Und wenn man ehrlich ist, war Frauen in den meisten Ländern bis weit ins 20. Jahrhundert hinaus, der Zugang zu höherer Bildung und professionellen Berufen verwehrt; außerdem waren sie politisch entmündigt. Und in manchen Staaten ist das ja auch heute noch der Fall.

Was mich an dieser Geschichte besonders fasziniert, ist, dass es immer wieder wirklich mutige Frauen gab, die sich dagegen gewehrt haben, die aufbegehrt haben gegen ihre Unterdrückung. Im 18. Jahrhundert wurde mit den Ideen der Aufklärung und den beiden großen Revolutionen – der amerikanischen und der französischen Revolution – die Gleichheit und die Gleichberechtigung der Menschen in den Vordergrund gestellt. Zwei Frauen die, von diesen Ideen inspiriert, schon 1791/92 Schriften für Frauenrechte verfassten, waren Olympe de Gouges und Mary Wollstonecraft. Ihre Schriften haben sich wie Lauffeuer verbreitet; sie wurden weltweit in verschiedenste Sprachen übersetzt und gelten heute noch als Gründungsdokumente des Feminismus.

In unserer heutigen Zeit ist es selbstverständlich sich über Kontinente hinweg auszutauschen. Wie konnte ein Austausch und eine Zusammenarbeit im 19. Jahrhundert funktionieren?

Das war eine relativ komplexe, länger dauernde Entwicklung. Denn nach den gerade erwähnten frühen feministischen Schriften hat es ja immer noch ungefähr ein halbes Jahrhundert gedauert, bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, bis dann wirkliche Aktionen folgten. Die Frage ist also, wie kam es zu einem Austausch zwischen den Frauen? Warum gab es den vorher nicht? Hierfür ist es wichtig, sich die ideellen und die technischen Errungenschaften dieser Zeit in Erinnerung zu rufen. Einerseits, das hatte ich ja schon erwähnt, gab es das neue Gedankengut der Aufklärung und dann waren auch die Industrialisierung und die Urbanisierung sehr wichtig. Durch sie hatte sich eine neue Mittelschicht gebildet, die nicht mehr nur aus adeligen Frauen bestand, sondern einer größeren Menge Frauen ermöglichte, Lesen und Schreiben zu lernen. Sie alle konnten die neuen Schriften, die jetzt in Umlauf kamen, lesen und haben diese Ideen dann immer weiter verbreitet und manifestiert. Ein weiterer wichtiger Faktor war die Transport- und Kommunikation- Revolution. Durch die Einrichtungen von Dampfschiffen verkürzte sich zum Beispiel die Überfahrtzeit von Europa nach Amerika von über sechs Wochen auf neun Tage. Das war eine echte Revolution; da ging es nicht nur um die Überfahrt von Menschen, sondern auch von Zeitungen, Briefen, Pamphleten und Aufrufen. Die konnten jetzt auf einmal mit sechsfacher Geschwindigkeit verbreitet werden. Auch auf den Kontinenten wurden ja die Eisenbahn-Netzwerke ausgebaut, und darüber hinaus wurde die Kommunikation mithilfe der neuen Telegraphenverbinderung weiter verbessert.

Ein anderer wichtiger Aspekt waren die vielen sozialen Reformbewegungen Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts. Essentiell für die Entstehung einer internationalen Frauenrechtsbewegung war zum Beispiel die Abolitionisten-Bewegung, also die Anti-Sklaverei-Bewegung. Denn in dieser Bewegung waren Frauen ganz stark engagiert und haben dort, wie man das so schön später sagte, „the tools of movement building“ erlernt. Also, wie organisiere ich öffentliche Proteste, wie bereite ich z.B. Demonstrationen vor, Petitionen, wie schreibe ich Aufrufe? Wie kann ich öffentliche Reden überhaupt halten, denn auch dies  war für Frauen damals etwas ganz Neues und Revolutionäres. Diese Fähigkeiten haben viele der Frauen durch ihr Engagement in der Abolitionisten Bewegung erstmals gelernt. Und innerhalb dieser Bewegungen haben die Frauen überhaut erst das Bewusstsein dafür entwickelt, dass sie selber als Frauen unterdrückt waren. Der Gedanke war: Die Schwarzen dürfen nicht wählen, aber wir dürfen auch nicht wählen. Natürlich war das nicht ganz vergleichbar, aber es hat sich daraus ein Bewusstsein für Genderdiskriminierung entwickelt. Übrigens ist es auch sehr faszinierend zu sehen, dass ziemlich genau 100 Jahre später das Gleiche bzw. etwas sehr Ähnliches nochmal stattfand, denn aus der Beteiligung von Frauen in der schwarzen Bürgerrechtsbewegung der 1950er und 60er Jahre heraus entwickelte sich dann der Second Wave Feminism in den USA.

International Congress of Women in 1915. LSE Library, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:International_Congress_of_Women1915_(22785230005).jpg

Teilten diese Frauen größtenteils dieselben Überzeugungen oder gab es auch andere Sichtweisen aufgrund ihrer nationalen Herkunft?

Das ist auch eine sehr spannende Frage, die gar nicht so einfach zu beantworten ist. Ich würde sagen für die Zeitspanne bis zu den 1920er Jahren, als ein Großteil der westlichen Länder das Frauenwahlrecht einführte, sind die nationalen Unterschiede nicht besonders groß. Da würde ich eher eine chronologische Differenzierung machen wollen. Bis Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts ging es den Frauen erstmal primär um Eigentums- und Vertragsrechte. Im rechtlichen Sinne war eine Frau nämlich früher immer nur ein Mündel, d.h. ein unmündiger Mensch. Entweder das Mündel des Vaters, dann nach der Eheschließung das Mündel des Ehemannes oder ohne Eheschließung das des Bruders. Wenn Frauen beispielsweise ihr Erbe mit in die Ehe brachten, gehörten das Geld oder die Häuser dem Mann. Oder bei Trennung wurde das Sorgerecht für die Kinder fast immer dem Mann zugesprochen, die Kinder waren quasi auch sein Eigentum, nicht das der Frau. Ich würde sagen, zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts hatte der Kampf gegen diese Gesetze in fast allen Ländern für Frauenrechtlerinnen Priorität und es gab dann auch bald schon erste Erfolge in diesem Bereich. Ab den 1860er Jahren hat sich der Fokus dann in den USA und später auch in Europa ein bisschen verschoben auf die zweite große Priorität: Zugang zu Bildung und Zugang zu professionellen Berufen. Denn es war für Frauen, z.B. fast überall verboten, ein Studium zu absolvieren.

Der Kampf war also zuerst darauf fokussiert, sich nicht ökonomisch erpressbar zu machen, indem Frauen eigenes Eigentum halten konnten und somit etwas unabhängig sein konnten. Im zweiten Schritt wurde der Zugang zu Bildung und professionellen Berufen in den Vordergrund gestellt und danach, vor allem im letzen Drittel des 19. Jahrunderts und im frühen 20. Jahrhundert kam dann der Kampf um das Wahlrecht dazu. Die Idee, dass Frauen wählen sollten, erschien vielen vorher noch zu radikal und die Zeitpunkte des Beginns der Frauenwahlrechtsbewegung waren in den verschiedenen Ländern auch sehr unterschiedlich. In Großbritannien waren die sogenannten Suffragetten sehr viel früher aktiv als in Deutschland. Gleichzeitig bildeten sich auch einige internatioanle Frauen-Friedensbewegungen: Viele Frauen glaubten, dass Männer immer wieder Krieg und Zerstörung auslösten und dass es Aufgabe der Frauen sei, sich gemeinsam für den Frieden einzusetzten. So wurde z.B. 1915 die Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom gegründet. Allerdings  sind diese internationalen Frauenvereinigungen für Frieden, Frauenrechte oder soziale Gerechtigkeit dann im Kriegsfall meist ziemlich schnell zerfallen. Da wurden die Anliegen der Frauen doch meist recht schnell den nationalen Interessen untergeordnet. Ab den 1920er Jahren hat sich der Fokus der jeweiligen Frauenrechtsbewegungen in den einzelnen Ländern dann mit größeren nationalen Unterschieden entwickelt als vorher, denn da das Frauenwahlrecht sich mehr oder weniger flächendeckend ausgebreitet hatte, ging es je nach nationaler Rechtslage – z.B. im Hinblick auf Reproduktionsrechte, Arbeitsrechte oder Zugang zu politischen Ämtern – in unterschiedlichen Formen weiter.

Warum ist es wichtig, sich heute als Historiker*in weiter mit diesen Netzwerken zu beschäftigen?

Wir haben heute ja auch noch keine wirkliche Gender Equality, deswegen finde ich es sehr wichtig sich mit diesen Versuchen früherer Frauenrechtlerinnen zu beschäftigen, Netzwerke aufzubauen und erfolgreiche Strategien zu entwickeln. Einerseits kann man im Idealfall daraus lernen, was funktionierte und was nicht funktionierte  Gleichzeitig finde ich aber auch, es macht Mut, die Geschichte dieser Frauen zu betrachten. Manchmal denkt man ja, man könnte schier verzweifeln, dass nichts vorangeht. Aber wenn ich dann unsere Situation heute vergleiche mit der Situation damals und sehe, wie diese Frauen immer weitergemacht haben, zum Teil für ihre Ideale sogar ins Gefängnis gegangen sind und trotzdem nicht aufgegeben haben, dann finde ich das sehr inspirierend. Wir müssen uns immer wieder klarmachen, dass man die Hoffnung nicht aufgeben darf. Aber auch, dass man nicht einfach passiv dasitzen kann, sondern dass man sich aktiv durch seine Publikationen, sein politisches Engagement oder andere Aktivitäten gegen die Unterdrückung von Frauen einsetzten muss. Ich glaube, diese Message, dass man für Fortschritt und Gender Gleichberechtigung wirklich weiter kämpfen muss in sozialen, wirtschaftlichen und politischen Bereichen, das ist etwas, wozu uns diese älteren Frauenrechtsbewegungen und Netzwerke inspirieren können. Um mit den Worten der afroamerikanischen Feministin Ella Baker zu enden: „The struggle continues. Somebody else carries on.“

A Strong Connection: How Digital History Makes the Past More Accessible

By Allison Ruman

Editorial note: Allison Ruman received her Bachelor of Arts in German, Political Science, and Classics & Ancient Mediterranean Studies from Penn State University in 2020 and will be studying European History, Politics, and Society (Master of Arts) at Columbia University this fall. Her primary focus is on interwar Germany, and she is especially interested in studying religious divisions and their role in the rise of far-right extremism. She is currently completing her remote internship at the GHI.

The biggest project of my undergraduate career was, without a doubt, my honors thesis, “Temperate Brutality”: The AfD and Right-Wing Extremism in Postwar Germany, a subject that fundamentally requires knowledge of the Nazi regime and the conditions leading to it.  One crucial element of my research was the use of primary sources, the invaluable “raw data” that remain from ages past and provide a firsthand account, which form the basis of our entire understanding of history.  This was especially important for my first chapter, in which I compared language and rhetoric patterns between the National Socialists and the Alternative for Germany (AfD going forward), a nationalist and far-right populist party established in 2013.  It is one thing to claim that a right-wing populist party resembles the National Socialists, it is quite another to prove it.  Since it is not 1928 and the AfD is not concerned with the Treaty of Versailles or communists in the Soviet Union, any similarities would be on a much broader, more nuanced level rather than glaringly obvious.

In order to show their resemblance, I wanted to highlight party representatives’ opinions about international organizations, non-Christians, non-Germans, and far-right violence, a task that required transcripts of parliamentary sessions from both eras.  Without digitization, this would have been an incredibly difficult task under normal circumstances, considering I live in the United States and the documents would be in Germany, those concerning the National Socialists in a much more fragile condition than those from only a few years ago.  However, the COVID-19 pandemic added another layer of complexity to this task.  National and international lockdowns cut off most of the access to these primary sources.

As my second chapter included all kinds of events of the twentieth century, I worked with less formal primary sources, including newspaper articles, such as Schüsse auf Rudi Dutschke, a 1968 article from the German news magazine Der Spiegel that reported on the assassination of sociology student Rudi Dutschke, and a private letter that Adolf Hitler wrote to Adolf Gemlich, a German army soldier.  This more casual material (for public figures in particular) is vital because it presents that person behind closed doors.  With the exponential evolution of technology, it is becoming increasingly difficult to separate public and private life, but it used to be common practice to curate an entirely distinct persona for the limelight.  These informal sources reveal what their genuine character was when they didn’t feel the need to perform as a public figure.

The first page of the Hitler letter to Adolf Gemlich, dated September 16, 1919, describing his hatred for Jews and detailing plans for their annihilation. Source: The Museum of Tolerance, Los Angeles, USA. https://www.museumoftolerance.com/assets/documents/hitler-letter-handout-1.pdf

Working with newspaper articles was especially enlightening when it came to what it means to be a primary source.  At the time of its publication, an article may not have been a primary source, particularly if it referenced another speech or publication.  However, its dog whistles and undertones offer a glimpse into the implicit biases and societal norms of the time decades later.  Understanding that particular society on a day-to-day level makes it easier to understand how concurrent historical events transpired.  This was particularly helpful for me in grasping the extent of anti-Soviet sentiments and the role they played in the disillusionment of former East Germans after reunification.

The manner in which sources were digitized really shocked me.  For example, some historical newspaper articles were exactly the same format as a digital article published today, i.e., a typed article on the newspaper’s website.  Other databases simply provided scans of the original hard copies, which was much less convenient, as the quality of the scan was not always the best.  Some of the newspapers were not analyzed by OCR (optical character recognition), which converts images of words into machine-detectable text and allows us to do things like highlight and copy words, so the process to get the information I needed was much longer.  I also ran into this problem with the parliamentary session transcripts; the 1928 transcripts were scans, and while the Bayerische Staats Bibliothek did apply OCR, the transcripts were recorded using the Fraktur script, which is incredibly challenging to read without years of experience.  I would not have spent nearly as much time working with the 1928 transcripts if they would have been transcribed to a document using a sans serif font.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stenographic report of negotiations of the Reichstag from the fourth legislative period of 1928, from the first meeting on June 13, 1928, through the 40th meeting on February 4, 1929. Originally printed and published in Berlin in 1929 by the Reich Printing Group.  Source: Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staats Bibliothek). https://www.reichstagsprotokolle.de/index.html

Another problem I had with using digital sources was a lack of access to them due to paywalls.  This was an issue I experienced with databases for all mediums, including books, journals, interviews, and more, such as JSTOR and ProQuest, but especially because many newspapers provide databases themselves, reading a historical newspaper article counted toward the number of free articles per month, a problem I frequently encountered with sites like The New York Times.  Luckily, my university had subscriptions to most of the databases I used, but if I would not have had the privilege of attending a university, I would not have been able to acquire most of my material.  When people have no access to credible historical and news sources, their only option is turning to free misinformation and biased reporting.  The truth should not be a luxury reserved for a certain group of people.

Since the AfD is relatively new, finding any data on them was much more difficult than established groups.  I had trouble finding statistics on AfD representation at state levels, as each Landtag website was organized differently; some had a parliamentary breakdown by percentage, some listed each MP and their party, and some had no information on party representation whatsoever.  The general AfD website offered no help, so I sometimes had to calculate state-level representation myself, and other times I had to find statistics elsewhere.  In hindsight, the non-systematic organization of Landtag websites is not all that odd, considering each state Landtag is in charge of its own website, but it was not something I had taken into account; having grown up in a two-party system, there was no real opportunity for such a dilemma.  Finding election results was also a challenge.  My home state of Pennsylvania has a website with election results from the last twenty years, so I was surprised that there was not a similar archive for German states.  I managed to find the results, but they were not in a centralized location.  As with the 1928 transcripts, it would have been much more efficient if there would have been one place dedicated to keeping these records.

Landtag website for the state of Baden-Württemberg. The only statistics this website provided about the composition of its parliament were links to individual party websites. Source: https://www.landtag-bw.de/home/der-landtag/fraktionen.html
Landtag website for the state of Saxony-Anhalt. This website included a section for each party represented in the Landtag with statistics, including the number of members, Party Chair and Deputy Party Chair, and administrative information. Source: https://www.landtag.sachsen-anhalt.de/landtag/fraktionen/afd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Landtag website for the state of Schleswig-Holstein. This website included a breakdown of the most recent election results (and the date of that election), including the number of seats each party occupies and the percentage of the Landtag that constitutes. The website also includes a disclaimer about the overhang mandate, in which the CDU lost one seat because of Germany’s mixed-member-proportional representation system. The CDU’s primary vote was higher than the secondary vote, so the SPD, AfD, and SSW all received a “compensatory mandate,” which makes the party representation more closely match election results. Source: https://www.landtag.ltsh.de/parlament/der-19-lt/

Digitization removes traditional barriers that come with studying history, including cost, distance, and accessibility, which is especially exclusionary for people with disabilities.  However, as I was researching for my undergraduate thesis, I discovered that the availability of digital sources removes some, but not all, barriers.  Certain obstacles, like cost, still exist in digital form but take on a new appearance, no longer manifesting as the cost of travel and lodging to see the physical documents or monuments, but now as paywalls that prevent access to books, journals, newspapers, and databases.  The same is true with inaccessibility, no longer old cities and historical sites that are difficult for people with physical disabilities to comfortably navigate, now as inadequate digitization, whether that’s poor scan quality with no legible supplement or simply a failure to provide a source that is understandable without specialization and training in that field.  This includes, of course, sans serif fonts in lieu of Fraktur script, but one thing I was very grateful for during thesis research was the author and translator notes about particular words, actions, or attitudes during a specific time period that explained the relevant contextual background, something the staff at German History in Documents and Images does an excellent job of including in their documents.  The changes we make to our digital sources don’t have to be monumental in order to break down these barriers, and they may seem inconsequential to us, but they make a world of difference to many.  Digitization has already done so much to broaden the confines of historical study, but it is imperative to keep diversifying the voices in the digital scholar community so that we do not continue to ostracize the most marginalized among us from the discipline.  Increasing access to digital tools will help to improve traditional methods of historical research, which will allow the field to grow and diversify and enhance both teaching and research.

The Scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller

By Marietheres Pirngruber

In my second blog post about the US Suffrage movement, I ‘m taking a closer look at one of the sources: The Scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller. After sharing short biographies of both women, I will present and analyze the sources.

Elizabeth Smith Miller and her daughter, Anne Fitzhugh Miller, were both active advocates and financial supporters of the women’s rights movement. Elizabeth Smith Miller was the only daughter of famous abolitionist landowner and Congressman Gerrith Smith and lived her life in large houses known for as centers of hospitality and philosophical discussion. Her childhood home in Peterboro, New York, was widely known as a refuge for reformers and nineteenth-century thinkers. Elizabeth Smith Miller continued this tradition at her estate, Lochland in Geneva, New York, which became known as a place suffragist supporters and social reformers frequently visited. Elizabeth’s only daughter, Anne Fitzhugh Miller, grew up in this environment and lived at Lochland for her entire adult life, helping her mother to uphold its atmosphere of hospitality. They became particularly active as a mother and daughter team after the death of Anne’s father in 1896 that persuaded the New York State Woman’s Suffrage Association to hold its annual convention in Geneva, among other initiatives. Later, Anne Fitzhugh Miller founded the Geneva Political Equality Club (GPEC) and served as its president for over a decade.  GPEC became a thriving organization and the largest in the state with almost 400 members by 1907. The political and social connections of the Millers allowed the Club to attract a wide range of nationally and internationally known lecturers such as the prominent suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was also Elizabeth Smith Miller’s cousin. Furthermore, GPEC served as a model for the formation of other local Political Equality Clubs like the Ontario County Political Equality Association. Anne Fitzhugh Miller also held office at the New York State Women’s Suffrage Association and participated in statewide national suffrage activities, held public speeches and represented New York State at a U.S. Senate hearing regarding women’s suffrage.

In this post, I will present the scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and her daughter, which they compiled from 1897 until 1911. The collection is available in digital form on the Library of Congress website: Miller NAWSA suffrage scrapbooks, 1897-1911. The collection contains seven scrapbooks, the first ones covering the years 1897-1904, and subsequent ones covering one year each. What is most interesting, in my view, is that the scrapbooks function like source collections about the women’s suffrage movement on their own. They include newspaper articles, pamphlets, programs and photographs, and also personal items like letters. While the scrapbooks cover mostly the women suffrage movement and suffragists in New York State, especially the Geneva Political Equality Club, the New York State Women Suffrage Association, and the National American Women Suffrage Association, the scrapbooks also include sources covering the women’s suffrage movement in Great Britain, where Elizabeth Cady Stanton traveled frequently, while staying in close contact with British suffragists.

Scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller, NAWSA collection, LC, p. 37, https://lccn.loc.gov/93838336

I will take a closer look at pages 37 and 38 of the first Scrapbook from the years 1898 and 1899 and present the contents and difficulties associated with those sources. Since the pages document the same topic with different sources, they are especially interesting for a critical source review.  The subject of both pages are GPEC meetings. Page 37 includes the program for the meeting on Dec. 19th, 1898, page 38 the programs of the meetings in January and February 1899. One can see that the meetings were usually held at the same location, on the same weekday and at the same time. Furthermore, the programs contain the agenda items like lectures, discussions or elections. There are matching newspaper clippings announcing the meetings or reporting about them. Additionally, there are two letters with their envelopes attached to both pages. Already those two pages contain a lot of information, in this case about GPEC, compiled from different sources. A newspaper article from The Geneva Courir, for example, contains detailed information about the February Meeting of GPEC. It reads almost like a detailed protocol, and the meeting’s agenda items are described, in addition to very detailed information like the absence of Anne Fitzhugh Miller and her representation through second Vice-president Mrs. Perkins. 

Scrapbooks of Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller, NAWSA collection, LC, p. 38, https://lccn.loc.gov/93838336

The scrapbook is a collection of various sources, including official as well as private sources, which offers insights into the suffrage movement in the US, and about GPEC in particular. Still, it’s important to be aware of certain problems with this type of source. First of all, it is not obvious what kind of sources Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller included in the scrapbooks and which ones they did not. Furthermore, the origins of their sources aren’t always clear. The newspaper clippings mentioned on page 37 and 38, for example, don’t always include the newspaper sources and dates.  Sometimes there is more information provided by handwritten notes, such as dates, but the origins of the sources are frequently missing.  Additionally, there is a downside with the digitized version of the scrapbook. The letter from Mrs. Ver Planck on page 37 for example, is folded to save space inside the scrapbook. However, the page is only scanned with the folded letter inside so that one cannot actually read it in the digitized version.

The scrapbooks are rich sources for the development of the US suffrage movement, especially considering the background of the two exceptional suffragists who created the scrapbooks, the variety of sources that are included, and the time period of more than a decade. While not every clipping can be exactly assigned to its origin and the digitized version of the scrapbook does not allow every source to be analyzed, the scrapbooks contain many interesting sources that enlighten the organization of women’s suffrage organizations and movements.